By G. Landmann, L. Bouhot-Delduc (auth.), Guy Landmann, Maurice Bonneau, Michèle Kaennel (eds.)
Forest decline grew to become an issue of public and medical situation in France in 1983 while conifers within the Vosges mountains have been chanced on to convey strange crown deterioration. An impassioned controversy on a supposedly huge scale wooded area sickness used to be then in complete swing in valuable Europe. A co-ordinated learn programme entitled DEFORPA ("Deperissement des For~ts et toxins AtmospMrique") used to be introduced in 1984. This programme ran from 1984 to 1991 and a couple of tasks are nonetheless in development. The Programme used to be backed by way of 3 French ministries (Enviroument, Agriculture and Forestry, learn and Technologyl), a number of country companies, quite a few local professionals and the fee of the eu groups (DO xn and DG VI). at first, emphasis was once exclusively laid at the knowing of woodland decline within the mountainous components - simply because harm was once most evident there - relating to traditional and man-made elements. pollution was once given excessive yet now not overwhelming precedence. hence, the DEFORPA Programme used to be no longer in its essence a nation-wide overview of pollution results, in contrast to a couple of nationwide acidification study programmes in Europe and North the USA. in the course of. the programme, notwithstanding, the parts of outrage improved. particularly, learn into water acidification within the Vosges mountains used to be constructed in parallel with the DEFORPA Programme, and attainable eutrophication of the floor vegetation in northeastern France turned the topic of latest research.
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This work showed that needle retention varies roughly in parallel with growth, although with a 3-year lag. Similar patterns have recently been described by Jalkanen et al. (1994) for Scots pine in southern England. In some instances (for example, in the early and late 1980s in southern England), needle retention continued to decrease while growth was already in a distinct recovery phase. Given the considerable lag effects in the growth response of fir (Becker 1989), the "flexibility" of the relationship between growth and needle retention may well be greater than in pine.
I . . :• • , , . < . • Massif Central ; : Massif Central ' 9092 I Southern Alps • 1 87 89 I h, ' Southwest : and Pyrenees 1111:11•. 1 . c to o r 8. I 0, 0- IV § Corresponding regions of the Blue and European (underlined) Networks are separated with dotted lines; solid lines separate major ecological ...... regions. * Comparison with the following years is difficult as a much smaller number of trees were assessed g Fig. 8. Regional evolution of crown condition in European beech between 1984 and 1993: (A) defoliation and (B) foliage discolouration.
E 40 20 0 5 13 8 12 2 7 10 14 15 9 4 3 6 11. Trees Fig. 3b. Comparison of defoliation assessment between 8 teams for 15 beeches in the Midi-Pyrenees region 17 Ground Monitoring of Forest Health Table 5. Detailed results of the calibration exercise in Midi-Pyrenees for beech (15 trees) Matrix of the linear correlations between teams Ref. team Team 1 Team2 Team3 Team4 TeamS Team6 Team 7 Ref. 7% Ref. 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% 0% (0 -10%) (15 - 25%) (30 - 60%) (65 -95%) Ref. 0 Differences Between Teams According to Region, Species and Defoliation Rate.