Tuberculosis (Deadly Diseases and Epidemics) by Kim Renee Finer;I. Edward Alcamo

By Kim Renee Finer;I. Edward Alcamo

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For an individual who has no known risk factors for contracting tuberculosis, an induration measuring 15 millimeters or more indicates exposure to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It does not mean the individual has tuberculosis disease. Additional tests and observations should be made before reaching that conclusion. An induration zone of ten mm or more should be considered positive for individuals who fall into the following high risk groups: • IV drug users • Non-United States born persons from high-risk areas such as Asia, Africa, and Latin America • An individual who has suffered a weight loss greater than ten percent of body weight • Children exposed to adults at high risk • Individuals with medical risk factors including diabetes, cancer, and kidney disease • Residents of long-term care facilities (prisons, nursing homes, psychiatric facilities) • Health-care workers and employees who provide services to any of the above mentioned groups.

Because of the variation of results in large screening programs, the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that the tine test no longer be used to screen children. THE MANTOUX TEST It is now recommended that all screening for tuberculosis be done using the Mantoux method. 1 ml of liquid) are delivered just under the skin using a short, blunt needle. 1 Differences between the multiple puncture test (tine) and the Mantoux tests for screening against tuberculosis infection. 2 The Mantoux test is another method used to test for tuberculosis.

That elephant had visible respiratory and trunk exudates. Lung tissue showed caseous necrosis. Of the five elephants, three eventually died from tuberculosis and a fourth was found to be infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Elephant handlers worked closely with the elephants around the clock, and most lived in a building adjacent to the barn where the animals lived. All animal handlers, trainers, and caregivers were given tuberculosis tests, and 50 percent (11 of 22) of the handlers were positive with Mantoux testing (see Chapter 7 for an explanation of tuberculosis tests).

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