By Enrique Cadenas
Includes new and multiplied fabric on antioxidants in drinks and natural items, nitric oxide and selenium, and the impression of nutrition C on heart problems and of lipoic acid on getting older, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance!Offering over 4200 modern references-2000 greater than the former edition-the moment version of the instruction manual of Antioxidants is an up to date resource for nutritionists and dietitians, cellphone biologists and biochemists, cardiologists, oncologists, dermatologists, and scientific scholars in those disciplines.
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Additional resources for Handbook of Antioxidants (Oxidative Stress and Disease)
Finally, reaction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) with O2 ·− can make some OH· (131). HOCl + O2 ·− → OH· + O2 + Cl− Reactions of Hydroxyl Radical. The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive: it can react with essentially all molecules found in foods or in vivo, with rate constants of 109 –1010 M−1 s−1 (132). Thus, almost everything in food or in vivo is potentially an OH· scavenger: no speciﬁc molecule has evolved for this role in living organisms. Hence, suggestions that diet-derived or synthetic antioxidants can scavenge OH· within the human body are unlikely.
Histidine-containing dipeptides such as carnosine, which are found in many mammalian tissues and in foods of animal origin, might also act as antioxidants by metal ion chelation (138). Citrate is frequently added to foods: one of its advantages is that it can chelate iron ions in forms that are poorly reactive (139)—although not completely unreactive (140)—in catalyzing free radical damage. Assessment of Hydroxyl Radical Scavenging. The deﬁnitive technique for measuring the rate constant for reaction of a substance with OH· , and for studying the products of that reaction, is pulse radiolysis (112,132).
However, although EDTA usually accelerates iron-dependent OH· generation from H2 O2 , an excess of EDTA inhibits iron-dependent lipid peroxidation under most reaction conditions (143). FOOD-DERIVED ANTIOXIDANTS 13 The deoxyribose method can also be used to examine the ability of a putative antioxidant to chelate Fe3+ iron ions, by replacing the EDTA normally used in the assay by FeCl3 . When unchelated iron ions are added to the reaction mixture, some of them bind to deoxyribose. The bound iron ions still participate in a Fenton reaction, but any OH· radicals formed attack deoxyribose and are not released into free solution.