By W. H. Somerton
This e-book brings jointly for the 1st time the result of learn at the thermal homes and temperature-related habit of rocks with their contained fluids, lower than subsurface environmental stipulations. those facts are of accelerating value with elevated program of underground techniques regarding extreme temperature and, now and again, low temperature environments. many of the very important tactics are defined within which thermal information are wanted. Chapters take care of thermal homes of rocks, together with warmth capacities, thermal conductivities and thermal diffusivities below stipulations simulating subsurface environments. dialogue in regards to the hassle in measuring thermal houses of rock/fluid platforms is incorporated besides newly-developed types for predicting thermal houses from more-easily measured homes. the results of thermal reactions in rocks, differential thermal enlargement, and thermal adjustments are mentioned in separate chapters. the consequences of temperature on rock homes, as specific from the irreversible results of heating, are reviewed. finally the ebook bargains with wellbore purposes of thermal and high-temperature habit of rocks and strategies of deducing thermal houses from geophysical logs run in boreholes. Appendices contain thermal devices conversion components and thermal homes of a few commonplace reservoir rocks and fluids.
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Extra info for Thermal Properties and Temperature-Related Behavior of Rock Fluid Systems
0 0 9 r 0 9 2 10 5 0 0 5 10 20 25 30 Unit Area Under Curve 15 35 40 Fig. 111-3. Correlation of heat of reaction for a-p quartz inversion with area under response curves from Fig. 111-2. 45 27 2 RESULTS OF MEASUREMENTS The experimentally determined heats of reaction for the three sandstones are shown in Table 111-2 where they are compared with the heat required to raise the temperature of the rock through the same temperature ranges without considering thermal reactions. The reaction heat is 27 percent of the total heat requirements for both Bandera and Berea sandstones.
The stainless steel thermocouple sheathing is silver-soldered to the plate at the entry point. The thermcouple plates are carefully calibrated before use. To minimize radial heat loss, the entire stack is surrounded by a split-cylinder furnace which consists of a layer of low conductivity ceramic fiber insulation, a uniformly wound resistance-wire heater on a ceramic cylinder, another layer of ceramic fiber insulation, and a sheet stainless steel outer case. Temperature of the guard heater is controlled to match the temperature at the midpoint of the test specimen.
TABLE 111-2 Experimentally determined heats of reaction for three sandstones, comparing heat required for reaction with heat capacity requirement for corresponding temperature range (Equiv. heat). Sample Bandera Temp. 9 98 9 34 33 L Z Z Boise 11 34 4 22 t9 Z Berea Equiv. heat (Cal/g of rock) 25 Z 101 14 28 71 indeterminable In interpretation and possible application of the above results, it must be considered that these tests were run on oven-dried sandstones to remove free water and at atmospheric pressure.