By Ali Nokhodchi, Gary P. Martin
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Extra info for Pulmonary Drug Delivery: Advances and Challenges
The most important receptor classes are ????-adrenergic receptors, muscarinic receptors (M3), histaminic receptors (H1 and H2), glucocorticoid receptors (GR), leukotriene 1 receptors and prostacyclin receptors (PR), none of these being uniformly distributed throughout the lung [69–74]. Most of the ????-adrenergic receptors are located in the epithelium of the alveolar walls, some bronchi and the terminal bronchioles. ???? 2 -Adrenergic receptor agonists (salbutamol (albuterol), terbutaline and isoprenaline) are drugs that act on the ???? 2 -adrenergic receptor, causing smooth muscle relaxation and dilation of bronchial passages .
To overcome this problem, hyperpolarized noble gases have been produced, which when inhaled enhance the MRI signal from the lung by several orders of magnitude. Additionally, as the signal is proportional to the concentration of the gas, regional variation in the The Role of Functional Lung Imaging in the Improvement of Pulmonary Drug Delivery 25 ventilation distribution may be obtained . By utilizing specialized magnetizing sequences, other functional measurements may be performed such as lung microstructure, oxygenation, and perfusion , although with varying degrees of success.
The ionizing nature of absorbed X-rays can damage DNA, either directly or through the creation of free radicals. For this reason, X-ray exposure (also known as dose) significantly increases the probability of developing cancerous tumors. Therefore, it is necessary to minimize the radiation dose 24 Pulmonary Drug Delivery in any X-ray imaging method, particularly in CT where the use of many projection images results in high radiation exposure . The requirement for minimization of dose means that it is difficult to perform longitudinal studies to investigate lung disease progression, or to monitor the effectiveness of certain treatments over time.