By Richard L. Van Metter, Jacob Beutel, Harold L. Kundel
Quantity I (consisting of elements 1 and 2), which issues the physics and the psychophysics of clinical imaging, starts with a primary description of x-ray imaging physics and progresses to a evaluate of linear platforms concept and its program to an figuring out of sign and noise propagation in such platforms. the next chapters quandary the physics of the real person imaging modalities at the moment in use: ultrasound, CT, MRI, the lately rising expertise of flat panel x-ray detectors and, particularly, their program to mammography. the second one 1/2 this quantity, on psychophysics, describes the present figuring out of the connection among photograph caliber metrics and visible conception of the diagnostic details carried by means of scientific photographs. furthermore, quite a few types of belief within the presence of noise or ''unwanted'' sign are defined. finally, the statistical tools utilized in making a choice on the efficacy of clinical imaging initiatives, ROC research and its variations, are mentioned.
Part I. Physics
1. X-ray creation, interplay, and detection in diagnostic imaging -- John Boone
2. utilized linear-systems idea -- Ian Cunningham
three. picture caliber metrics for electronic platforms -- James Dobbins
four. Flat panel detectors for electronic radiography -- John Yorkston, John Rowlands
five. electronic mammography -- Martin Yaffe
6. Magnetic resonance imaging -- David Pickens
7. three-d ultrasound imaging -- Aaron Fenster, Donal Downey
eight. Tomographic imaging -- David Goodenough
Part II. Psychophysics
advent Harold Kundel
nine. perfect observer types of visible sign detection -- Kyle Myers
10. a pragmatic consultant to version observers for visible detection in man made and common noisy photos -- Miguel Eckstein, Craig Abbey, Francois Buchod
eleven. Modeling visible detection initiatives in correlated photo noise with linear version observers -- Craig Abbey, Francois Buchod
12. results of anatomical constitution on sign detection -- Ehsan Samei, William Eyler, Lisa Baron
thirteen. Synthesizing anatomical pictures for photo figuring out -- Jannick Rolland
14. Quantitative picture caliber reports and the layout of x-ray fluoroscopy platforms -- David Wilson, Kadri Jabri, Ravindra Manjeshwar
15. primary ROC research -- Charles Metz
sixteen. The FROC, AFROC, and DROC versions of the ROC research -- Dev Chakraborty
17. contract and accuracy blend distribution research -- Marcia Polansky
18. visible seek in clinical pictures -- Harold Kundel
19. the character of workmanship in radiology -- Calvin Nodine, Claudia Mello-Thoms
20. functional functions of perceptual learn -- Elizabeth Krupinski
Read or Download Handbook of Medical Imaging, Volume 1. (Parts 1 and 2) Physics and Psychophysics ) PDF
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Additional resources for Handbook of Medical Imaging, Volume 1. (Parts 1 and 2) Physics and Psychophysics )
26 illustrate, attenuation coefficients for a given material are energy dependent. For an x-ray beam composed of a single energy of x-ray photons (a monoenergetic beam), the attenuation of that beam will follow a perfect exponential curve according to the Lambert–Beers law (Eq. 14)). 33 shows the attenuation plot for aluminum filters (an x-ray filter is just a thin sheet of metal) at several different x-ray energies. 33 is logarithmic and the x axis is linear (so the plot is semilogarithmic), and thus an exponential falloff will appear as a perfectly straight line, as the dashed monoenergetic lines indicate.
23: The mass attenuation coefficient for carbon is plotted as a function of x-ray energy. See text for definition of symbols. 24: The mass attenuation coefficient for iodine is illustrated as a function of x-ray energy. 2 keV) are apparent. 25), the L-edge and K-edge discontinuities are seen, and even the M edge is apparent for lead. 26. 25: The mass attenuation coefficient of lead is shown as a function of x-ray energy. The K edge (88 keV), L edges (around 16 keV), and M edge (∼3 keV) are seen.
Once the x-ray beam passes through the patient, it will strike the x-ray detector. , with K-shell energies in the 30-keV to 70-keV range. The characteristic x rays produced in the detector itself can be reasonably energetic, and therefore they can propagate finite distances within the detector, or more likely escape the detector completely. This phenomenon will be discussed later. 14). The unique feature of Rayleigh scattering is that ionization does not occur, and the energy of the scattered x ray is identical to that of the incident x-ray (E = E0 ).