By Reza Sadeghbeigi
This completely up-to-date version of Fluid Catalytic Cracking instruction manual presents useful details at the layout, operation, troubleshooting, and optimization of fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) amenities. in accordance with the author's years of box adventure, this elevated, moment variation covers the newest applied sciences to enhance the profitability and reliability of the FCC devices, and offers numerous "no-to-low-cost" sensible concepts. a brand new bankruptcy provides useful ideas for debottlenecking and optimizing the functionality of cat cracker operations.
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Extra resources for Fluid catalytic cracking handbook: design, operation, and troubleshooting of FCC facilities
2 m/sec), the bulk of catalyst particles are in the dense bed mmediately above the air distributor. The dilute phase is the region bove the dense phase up to the cyclone inlet, and has a substantially ower catalyst concentration. 05%. From the regenerator, the catalyst flows down a ransfer line commonly referred to as a standpipe. The standpipe rovides the necessary pressure to circulate the catalyst around the nit. Some standpipes extend into the regenerator, and the top section s often called a catalyst hopper.
In a number of units, the stripper bottoms is sent directly o the debutanizer. The feed enters about midway in the tower. Debutaizer feed is always partially vaporized because the debutanizer perates at a lower pressure than the stripper. A control valve that egulates stripper bottoms level is the means of this pressure drop. As result of this drop, part of the feed is vaporized across the valve. The debutanizer separates the feed into two products. The overhead roduct contains a mixture of C3's and C4's.
Tripper or De-ethanizer The HPS liquid consists mostly of C3's and heavier hydrocarbons; owever, it also contains small fractions of C2's, H2S, and entrained water. The stripper removes these light ends. The liquid enters the tripper on the top tray. The heat for stripping is provided by an xternal reboiler, using steam or debutanizer bottoms as the heat medium. The vapor from the reboiler rises through the tower and strips he lighter fractions from the descending liquid. The rich overhead apor flows to the HPS via the condenser and is fed to the primary bsorber.