Ultrasound in gynecology and obstetrics by Sam N. Hassani M.D. (auth.)

By Sam N. Hassani M.D. (auth.)

by Dr. Donald L. King The earlier decade has obvious the ascent of ultrasonography to a preeminent place as a diagnostic imaging modality for obstetrics and gynecology. it may be said with no qualification that glossy obstetrics and gynecology can't be practiced with out using diagnostic ultrasound, and specifically, using ultrasonogra­ phy. Ultrasonography quick and thoroughly presents exact, excessive­ answer photos of the pelvic organs and gravid uterus. the standard and volume of diagnostic details bought by way of extremely­ sonography a long way exceeds whatever formerly on hand and has had a innovative impression at the administration of sufferers. excessive­ solution static photographs allow the intrauterine prognosis of fetal progress retardation and fetal abnormalities. as well as tradi­ tional photos, more recent dynamic imaging ideas enable observa­ tion of fetal movement, cardiac pulsation, and respiration efforts. using ultrasonography for assistance has drastically augmented the protection and application of amniocentesis. one of many nice virtues of diagnostic ultrasound has been its obvious security. at this time power degrees, diagnostic ultrasound seems to be with none injurious impact. even supposing the entire availa­ ble facts means that it's a very secure modality and that the convenience to danger ratio is especially excessive, the particular safeguard margin for its use Vll as but continues to be unknown. in this case, practitioners are recommended to restrict its use basically to these events during which actual scientific indica­ tions exist and actual gain to the sufferer is probably going to result.

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Example text

TRANSDUCER COMPONENTS The transducer has a lead zirconate crystal with piezoelectric properties, which can expand and contract in response to electric pulses (Fig. 1). The piezoelectric crystal has a small cylindrical shape and is generally 1 to 2 cm wide and 1 mm thick. The electrodes providing the electric potential are connected to both sides of the crystal. The vibrating crystal causes compressions and rarefactions in all directions. To provIde a unidirectional ultrasonic beam, a backing material is used to absorb the waves in unwanted directions.

Kossoff G: Display techniques in ultrasound pulse echo investigation. A review. J Clin Ultrasound 1:61, 1974 14. Carlsen EN: Gray scale ultrasound. J Clin Ultrasound 1:190, 1973 15. Marich KW, Zatz LM, Green PS, et al: Real time imaging with a new ultrasonic camera. 1. In vitro experimental studies on transmission imaging of biological structures. J Clin Ultrasound 3:5, 1975 16. Weill F, Elsenschar A, Aucent D, et al: Ultrasonic study of venous patterns in the right hypochondrium. An anatomical approach to differential diagnosis of obstructive jaundice.

Gray scale. Below the echoes of the distal bladder wall-uterus interface is a total sonic shadow. Air or calcium will produce a total acoustic shadow. Gas gangrene of the uterus is demonstrated. DETECTION OF THROUGH TRANSMISSION PATTERN Through transmission is the sound energy that passes through a structure and is then recorded by the receiving transducer. It is inversely proportional to the attenuating properties of the medium and is registered on the oscilloscope as the number of echoes and their amplitudes at the distal interface of the region insonated.

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