The Formative Influences, Theories, and Campaigns of the by Lee W. Eysturlid

By Lee W. Eysturlid

Archduke Carl of Austria lived in the course of a time fractured by way of the collision of revolution and response, and he drew upon the French Revolution because the resource for many of his reviews as a box commander and theoretician. He firmly believed that there have been sure uncontradictable truths that ruled war. this primary English-language learn of his theoretical writings bargains a brand new standpoint on figuring out the brain of this army theorist via examine of his highbrow historical past. The archduke's army occupation lasted from 1792 to 1809, and his severe paintings as an army theoretician and historian ranged from the 1790s to the 1830s.

Eysturlid explores Archduke Carl's formative army schooling and stories through analyzing the readings that shaped the foundation of his schooling and the teachers that exercised a power over him. Archduke Carl was once a distinct made from his Enlightenment schooling and a diehard proponent of constrained war. Chapters glance rigorously at Carl's significant works on army method and strategies and detect intimately his activities and efforts through the 1796 and 1809 campaigns. historiographical chapters supply necessary contextual fabric approximately this poorly understood old figure.

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54. Rothenberg, Napoleon's Great Adversaries, p. 81; Roider, p. 181. 55. M. Hartley. The Man Who Saved Austria: The Life and Times of Baron Jellacic. don, 1912, p. 6. 56. Criste, Vol. 2, pp. 353-54; Pistor, p. 48. 57. Criste, Vol. 2, p. 372. 58. Ludwig Jedlicka. " In P. , Gestalter der Geschicke Osterreichs, Vol. 2. Vienna, 1975, p. 319. 59. Rothenberg, Napoleon's Great Adversaries, pp. 105-6. 60. Angeli, p. 88. 61. Ommen, pp. 1-2. 62. Gunther E. Rothenberg. The Army of Francis foseph. West Lafayette, 1976, p.

Shanahan. " In G. E. Rothenberg, B. K. Kiraly, and P. F. , East Central European Society and War in the Pre-Revolutionary Eighteenth Century. New York, 1982, p. 90; Ha Delbriick. The Dawn ofModern Warfare. Translated by Walter J. , Lincoln, 1990 p. 388. 45. Gat, p. 67. 46. Alger, p. 12. 47. Henry E. H. Lloyd. History of the Late War in Germany Between the King ofPrussia a the Empress of Germany and Her Allies. London, 1781. 48. Rudolf Vierhaus. , Klassiker de Kriegskunst. Darmstadt, 1960, p. 192.

As the bulk of the army arrived on the field, the artillery and the first line deployed with the guns working to disrupt the enemy in preparation for the attack. Once deployed, the first line of infantry moved forward to the assault, supported by the second line or reserve. Behind the second line came the cavalry to pursue, but if the attack failed the reserve deployed to cover the army's retreat. The archduke warned against attacking in several widely separate columns, as this allowed the enemy the "central position" {Centralpunkte) and violated the principle of mass resulting in the piecemeal destruction of each column.

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