Routledge History of Philosophy. Medieval Philosophy by John Marenbon

By John Marenbon

Combining the newest scholarship with clean views in this advanced and quickly altering zone of analysis, this paintings considers the wealthy traditions of medieval Arab, Jewish and Latin philosophy.

Experts within the box supply entire analyses of the most important parts of medieval philosophy and its such a lot influential figures, together with: Avicenna, Averroes, Maimonides, Eriugena, Anselm, Abelard, Grosseteste, Aquinas, Henry of Ghent, Duns Scotus, Peter Aureoli, William of Ockham, Wyclif, Suarez, and the big and enduring impact of Boethius at the medieval Latin West. designated realization is dedicated to the seminal, yet lesser-known figures in every one interval, and to the cultural context of medieval philosophy in Islam and the Christian West.

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A hypothetical syllogism is a syllogism where one or both of the premisses are molecular statements: statements consisting of more than one simple statement joined together by a connective. These are not just conditionals (as the word ‘hypothetical’ may suggest) but also conjunctions and disjunctions. Whereas the variables in categorical syllogisms are terms, the variables in hypothetical syllogisms are statements. On Hypothetical Syllogisms goes beyond Aristotle, who had restricted himself to the logic of terms, by exploring the logic of statements (prepositional logic), although it seems not to draw on the most sophisticated ancient exponents of this branch of logic, the Stoics.

THE THEOLOGICAL TREATISES Boethius’ reputation as a theologian depends on five short treatises, called in the Middle Ages the Opuscula sacra. Only three of them are of importance: no. 2 is a briefer, probably preliminary version of part of no. 1, whilst no. 4 (‘On faith’)—sometimes, but probably wrongly, supposed inauthentic—is a straightforward confession of faith, containing nothing of Boethius’ own thoughts. No. 5, a refutation of the opposing extreme Christological views of Nestorius and Eutyches, was probably the first to be written (after 512).

Philosophy goes on (bk IV) to explain why, despite appearances, it is not the case that the wicked enjoy power while the good are left impotent. She distinguishes the will to obtain something and the power to be able to do so. Everyone, she says, wants happiness. The good have the power, by being good, to gain happiness, whereas the evil are unable to gain it. By contrast with Boethius-the-character’s earlier view of a universe in which God has abandoned humankind to its own devices, Philosophy explains that divine providence arranges all things; fate is simply the 18 BOETHIUS: FROM ANTIQUITY TO THE MIDDLE AGES working out as actual events of this providential plan which is conceived ‘in the purity of God’s intellect’ (IV, pr.

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