By Robert F. Mitchell, Larry W. Lake (Editor-in-Chief)
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Extra info for Petroleum Engineering Handbook: Drilling Engineering Vol. 2
The fact that the fractures are parallel to the wellbore is an indication that the wellbore axis is parallel to a principal stress direction—in this case, the vertical stress. Fig. 21). In some very rare cases, wellbores will enlarge in the direction in which tensile fractures are created by excessive amounts of wellbore cooling or extremely high mud weights. This effect has been documented using image logs in cases where stress orientations obtained from caliper logs were interpreted to indicate 90° shifts in stress orientation across bed boundaries.
Depth. (c) When converted to an equivalent density, overburden can be displayed in psi/ft, lbm/gal, or specific gravity (SG) (courtesy GeoMechanics Intl. ). (if not impossible) to measure pore pressure in shales because of their very low permeability and small pore volume. In addition, because of their low permeability, pore pressure in shales adjacent to permeable reservoirs may be different from pore pressures in the reservoir. However, there are a number of methods that can be used to estimate pore pressure in shales based on other measurements.
Other methods that rely on observing the effect of stress on rock properties using oriented core have been found to be less reliable and subject to influence by factors other than in-situ stress. 1 Using Wellbore Failure. As previously discussed, wellbore breakouts occur in vertical wells at the azimuth of SHmin, and drilling-induced tensile failures occur 90° to breakouts at the azimuth of SHmax Therefore, the orientations of these stress-induced wellbore failures uniquely define the orientations of the far-field horizontal stresses when using data from vertical wells.