By Julia Annas
Quantity VIII of this acclaimed annual ebook contains contributions from Andr? Laks, Hugh G. Benson, Cynthia A. Freeland, Stephen White, David Gallop, Salim Kemal, Mark L. McPherran, Eric Lewis, David Bostock, and Elizabeth Asmis.
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Aristotle, nice Greek thinker, researcher, reasoner, and author, born at Stagirus in 384 BCE, was once the son of Nicomachus, a doctor, and Phaestis. He studied below Plato at Athens and taught there (367–47); for that reason he spent 3 years on the courtroom of a former student, Hermeias, in Asia Minor and at the moment married Pythias, considered one of Hermeias’s relatives.
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Additional info for Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy: Volume VIII: 1990 (Oxford Studies in Ancient Philosophy)
Expressions like right, wrong, justice, and sense of right are accepted without misunderstanding even with reference to social matters, they . . create the same hopeless confusion in any scientific investigation of economic relations as would be created, for instance, in modern chemistry if the terminology of the phlo giston theory were to be retained. (Quoted in Harvey 1 996, 3 3 1 ) Although Harvey ( 1 996, 332) agrees that justice as embodied in the law within capitalist states reflects the interests of the ruling class, he neverthe less believes the term can create a powerful mobilizing force for political action.
A further problem of the deliberative approach arises from the rela tionship between speech and action. Major changes in social conscious ness require deeper transformations than mere verbal assent ( Lukacs 1 97 1 ) . Even if perceptions of interest are biased or misdirected by dis torted speech and even if structures are socially produced, changing speech alone does not transform the structures that shape consciousness. Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels ( 1 947), in their critique of the Hege lians, assert that the world was changed through struggle, not the force of ideas.
He then presents a quote from Engels: Justice [ expressed in legal terms] is but the ideologized, glorified expression of the existing economic relations . . While in every day life . . expressions like right, wrong, justice, and sense of right are accepted without misunderstanding even with reference to social matters, they . . create the same hopeless confusion in any scientific investigation of economic relations as would be created, for instance, in modern chemistry if the terminology of the phlo giston theory were to be retained.