God and Cosmos in Stoicism by Ricardo Salles

By Ricardo Salles

It is a collective research, in 9 new essays, of the shut connection among theology and cosmology in Stoic philosophy. The Stoic god is healthier defined because the unmarried energetic actual precept that governs the total cosmos. the 1st a part of the publication covers 3 crucial subject matters in Stoic theology: the energetic and demiurgical personality of god, his corporeal nature and irreducibility to subject, and destiny because the community of reasons during which god acts upon the cosmos. the second one half turns to Stoic cosmology, and the way it pertains to different cosmologies of the time. The 3rd half examines the moral and spiritual outcomes of the Stoic theories of god and cosmos.

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Did the first Stoics, Zeno, Cleanthes, and Chrysippus, accept this dilemma and, since they are known to have upheld conflagration, grant that Zeus could be temporarily inactive? ³⁴ Boethos was clearly arguing from two Zenonian or Chrysippean tenets and tried to show their incompatibility, in order to convince his fellow Stoics to discard the less likely and the less crucial one (according to him), namely the destruction of the world. Early Stoics agreed about refusing divine idleness, but did not share Boethos’ and ³⁰ In ND 1.

23: Varro, here obviously influenced by Stoicism, ‘states also that there are three degrees of soul in the whole universal nature: one which passes through all the living parts of the body which have no sensation, but only health in order to live, this force, he says, flows through our body in the bones, the nails and the hairs . ; a second degree of soul, which has sensation, leads this force to the eyes, the ears, the nostrils, the mouth and touch; the third degree of soul is the highest [part] of the soul, which is called mind (animus), in which intelligence dominates’.

Zeus chooses in effect kings as his only prot´eg´es, but this is because only the wise are kings⁸² and not because, as Callimachus would have it, kings in power are men of greater value.

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