On The Gait Of Animals by Aristotle

By Aristotle

Now of animals which switch their place a few circulate with the entire physique without delay, for instance leaping animals, others flow one half first after which the opposite, for instance strolling (and working) animals. In either those alterations the relocating creature regularly alterations its place by means of urgent opposed to what lies lower than it.

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A clue to what Polybius regarded as the ultimate basis of its explanatory and predictive power is the linguistic distinction that he makes among different steps in the process of constitutional change. Polybius punctuates his account at regular intervals with temporal clauses or series of temporal clauses, usually generalized ('whenever . . ' ) . 4 2 This device has the effect of breaking the account into a series of statements describing the natural consequences that follow from some particular event or events stipulated in the temporal clause (s): 51.

Friends and neighbours, reasoning that they could well meet with the same mistreatment, naturally disapprove of and condemn the child's behaviour. Similarly, in the wider context of general social interaction, if someone in trouble is rescued, but fails to show gratitude or even abuses the 'Good Samaritan' who has helped him, he meets with disapproval and criticism from observers who realize that the same thing could happen to anyone, including themselves. In addition to these two examples of situations in which the concept of justice will arise Polybius gives an example of an incident leading to the concept of'the admirable' (kalon).

14). See W a l b a n k (1966), cf. (1972) 145 a n d n. 105. For further discussion of possible scenarios for this transformation, see T r o m p f (1979) 317-20. 142-9. 40 David E. Hahm The Roman constitution provides still another pattern of constitutional change, a naturally evolved {kata phusin) mixed constitution. Exactly how Polybius explained its origin is not known, since the portion of the sixth book in which he discussed the history of the Roman constitution has been lost;54 but that he used the same basic psychological assumptions is clear from his analysis of its stability.

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