Notes on programming Standard ML of New Jersey by Pucella R.

By Pucella R.

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A reference is created by the constructor ref which expects an argument, the initial content of the reference. For example, - val a = ref (0); val a = ref 0 : int ref The value a is a reference to an integer, initially 0. Reading off the value in the reference is done through the ! operation (called dereferencing) applied to the reference. a; val it = 3 : int Notice that the assignment operator is unit-valued. The operation is used for its side effect of changing the value in the reference. Because of such side effects, we are justified in introducing a new syntactic form called sequencing.

Modern functional languages often use a special notation for constructing and handling list called comprehension [111], derived from the set comprehension notation used in mathematics. The equality operation is an example of an overloaded function, that is an operation that is defined at multiple types, with a different implementation for different types. It is a form of polymorphism, sometimes called ad-hoc, different from parametric polymorphism, which requires that the same implementation work for different types.

An example of a tuple is (true,3), which is a tuple of type bool ×int, made up of a boolean and an integer. The order is important: (3,true) is a different tuple, with a different type int ×bool. An arbitrary number of values can be packaged in this way, leading to correspondingly long tuple types. One way to extract a value from a tuple is to use the selection operations #1, #2, . , which extract the element at the corresponding position in the tuple. 4 will discuss an often better alternative to access tuple elements, via pattern matching.

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