Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterm Birth: From Childhood by Chiara Nosarti, Robin M. Murray, Maureen Hack

By Chiara Nosarti, Robin M. Murray, Maureen Hack

The enhanced survival of very preterm and intensely low delivery weight babies in fresh a long time has been linked to a rise within the occurrence of actual and neurodevelopmental difficulties. awareness is more and more being enthusiastic about the standard of lifetime of survivors, who're at better danger of mind harm and consequent neurological issues, and neuropsychological and behavioural impairments. during this quantity, major specialists current a entire and updated viewpoint on study in quite a few features of the long term effects of very preterm start. in addition to extending present wisdom of the neurodevelopmental sequelae following very preterm beginning, a shared goal of this burgeoning physique of analysis is to spot the mechanisms underlying diversifications in end result, and therefore realize subgroups of youngsters who're at elevated danger of neurodevelopmental difficulties, for whom acceptable intervention options may be devised. Pediatricians, neurologists, psychiatrists and psychologists will all locate this to be crucial interpreting.

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Extra info for Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Preterm Birth: From Childhood to Adult Life

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Cooke RW. Are there critical periods for brain growth in children born preterm? Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed 2006; 91(1): F17–20. 58. Fitzgerald M. The development of nociceptive circuits. Nat Rev Neurosci 2005; 6(7): 507–20. 59. Shaffery JP, Sinton CM, Bissette G, Roffwarg HP, Marks GA. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation modifies expression of long-term potentiation in visual cortex of immature rats. Neuroscience 2002; 110(3): 431–43. 60. Als H, Duffy FH, McAnulty GB, et al. Early experience alters brain function and structure.

However, widespread and prolonged dexamethasone usage towards the end of this era was associated with impaired brain growth and cortical development. In the most recent period, IVH has continued to decline but diffuse white matter injury, together with associated cortical and cerebellar abnormalities, is now recognized as an extremely common and poorly understood accompaniment of extremely preterm birth and current methods of neonatal care. Future developments in care are likely to lead to greater concentration on minimizing the adverse effects of the environment of the intensive care unit on the developing brain and on the use of noninvasive cerebral monitoring techniques to provide a brain-oriented focus of care.

This illustrates that diplegia can take a severe form. Secondary motor problems with contractures – in equinus position, hip adduction, and knee flexion – are frequent, especially in children who have not learnt to walk. • Cognitive problems, in terms of learning difficulties or mental retardation, are less often seen in preterm-born or low birth weight (LBW – less than 2500 g) than in term-born children – around 30–40% have mental retardation and around 25% have learning difficulties, whereas the figures are 70% and 15%, respectively, for children with normal BW and BS-CP.

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