By Konstantin Nossov
Utilizing archaeological proof and first-hand resources, Konstantin Nossov charts the heritage of the medieval Russian citadel from its early beginnings till the 14th century.
According to Russian legend, in advert 862, the Slav tribes of what's now ecu Russia invited a couple of Scandinavian princes to rule over them. In advert 882, Prince Oleg united those kingdoms because the feudal kingdom of Kievan Rus, by means of development a chain of cost and border fortifications, together with the Zmievy Valy (Snake Ramparts), to guard opposed to overseas invasion.
The upward thrust of feudalism in the course of the eleventh century observed the improvement of person fortified websites to the detriment of the prolonged border defenses. accordingly, Mongol hordes poured over the border, introducing the siege war options of the East, and seriously influencing the fortification kinds thereafter.
The upward thrust of Muscovy within the fourteenth century observed an greater function for Moscow and the Kremlin, which used to be rebuilt in stone reflecting its elevated significance.
This e-book brings these kind of different strands jointly right into a accomplished quantity at the fortifications of Russia from the early days of the Kievan Rus' till the root of the fashionable country in 1480.
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Extra info for Medieval Russian Fortresses AD 862-1480 (Fortress, Volume 61)
It was roughly in this sector that the main thrust of the Mongolian assault was directed in February 1238. At that date, the rampart was topped with log cell walls and the Golden Gate looked rather different. Table 1:The instances of siege and defence of fortresses between 1228 and 1462. com Riv er N e glin nay a River Moskva 11th C. walls Walls 1156 1339–40 1367 1485–95 Moscow Kremlin, 1339–40 OPPOSITE Moscow Kremlin, 1339–40 The main part of this illustration shows a reconstruction of the Moscow Kremlin as it looked in 1339–40; the top left plan details the evolution of Moscow’s fortiﬁcations from the 11th to the 15th century.
In 1341, however, the Livonians discovered the tainik and cut off the defenders’ water supply. 45 The sites at war Territorial gain never was the objective of the nomadic warriors, the main enemy facing Rus’ in the 10th to 12th centuries. Their lightning raids on horseback were aimed at capturing prisoners, cattle and property, before beating a rapid retreat back to the steppe. In their retaliatory punitive expeditions, the Russian princes tried to debilitate the enemy, seizing booty and preventing possible future attacks.
For a long time the opinions of researchers differed with regard to the social nature of settlements with cells in the ramparts. Because of their structural peculiarities they were considered ﬁrst to be feudal castles, then fortresses where the cells were occupied by servants or warrior-farmers who engaged in farming in peace but kept horses and weapons at the ready. A recent investigation by A. V. 1 to more than 20 hectares) and layout (some conformed to the terrain, others had a complex layout, more characteristic of cities).