By Nigel Tubbs (auth.)
Nigel Tubbs takes the historical past of Western philosophy to be the quest for first ideas. Arguing that neo-Platonic good judgment, essentially false impression the adverse, posited philosophical suggestion as errors. Kant and Hegel later re-educated the fashionable brain approximately negation in good judgment, reworking the best way smooth philosophy contests first principles.
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Since embodied thought, being compound and negative, is error, the true must be free from such negation. Thirdly, Philo says much about the logos acting as man’s instruction and education regarding the existence of God and the soul carried by the body which, in God’s image, should seek to be virtuous. Ignorance is a distance from the divine that cannot of itself be overcome. Only learning and education can open the mind and the soul to receive the ideas that God sends as his presence. God made a race ‘capable of receiving all learning’ (2006, 202) and, as such, education in and through the logos is God’s work.
But such subjectivity is also a culture of error. Augustine, Eriugena, and Aquinas, for example, in different ways seek to comprehend the educative significance of error in knowing God. They each try to learn of the re-forming of subjectivity by error so that it can learn of truth from within itself. This learning essentially involves the soul in a journey from man to God by way of reason. However, as we will see, in early and mediaeval subjective Christianity thought is ultimately posited as error, contradiction is eschewed as insubstantial, and subjectivity remains without a notion of self-determination as freedom.
As the logos is ‘pure’ reason so the spirit is ‘pure’ matter. The stoical soul aims for purity in thought, for therein it will be one with the highest form of universal spirit, its ruling principle, or its true nature. It is a principle of Stoicism that reason or nature or God should not be affected by heteronomous external elements but should enjoy an indifference towards them. The implications of this also form the fundamental principle of Stoic ethics. When the mind is focussed on external objects, including wealth, fame, and honour, then the mind is directed away from the true.