By G. Jones, Q. J. Fisher, R. J. Knipe
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Extra info for Faulting, fault sealing and fluid flow in hydrocarbon reservoirs
The geometry and spatial distribution of minor faults will depend on the style of faultrelated folds. Several examples of fault-related folds from the laboratory and field illustrate this point (Figs la-e). It has been demonstrated that minor faulting is important in adjusting roll-over folds above listric faults (Fig. la) (Dula 1991; Higgs e t al. 1991). Models of rollover deformation suggest that minor faults can cause an inclined simple shear distributed within the hanging wall (Dula 1991; White 1992).
The features seen associated with both Faults 1 and 2 are entirely consistent with what would be 60, 2120 40, m £z 1/ E < 2080 20 T Xline 2071 2040 0 580 560 Inline 600 550 Xline 2061 5~0 - 550 -610 550- s->o - ~ 0 - Xline 2059 610 g50- 5 % - 550- Inline Fig. 12. (a) Detailed amplitude attribute map around Fault 2 (black arrow) and (b) amplitude line graphs following inlines which corresponding to the sections in Fig. 10. Fault 2 is located with the red arrows. The amplitude reduction caused by Fault 2 (arrow) can be followed by scanning through adjacent line-graphs.
This will allow all the available fault properties to aid quality control. It will also increase confidence in any interpretation if more than one property exists for any individual fault. As it has been shown that the amplitude anomaly is often more sensitive to smaller fault displacements than any of the other properties, it will therefore be expected to cover a larger area of a given fault surface (see Fig. 13). Deterministic mapping of faults in 3D is fine for seismic datasets with several good reflection events or for larger faults.