Farr's physics for medical imaging by Penelope J. Allisy-Roberts OBE PhD FIPSM FInstP, Jerry

By Penelope J. Allisy-Roberts OBE PhD FIPSM FInstP, Jerry Williams MSc FIPEM CSci

Radiation physics. Radiation dangers and security. Imaging with X-rays. Film-screen radiography. electronic radiolography. Fluoroscopy. Computed tomography. Gamma imaging. Imaging with ultrasound. Magnetic resonance imaging.

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9 Is greater for a rotating than a stationary anode. 9 Is greater for a 10 cm disk than a 7 cm disk. 9 Is greater for a high-speed anode. 9 Is greater for a three-phase constant potential than for a single-phase pulsating potential - because the former produces heat more evenly throughout the exposure. ƒ The foregoing information is stored on a microprocessor in the control circuit which prevents any exposure being made which would exceed the rating of the tube. g. angio- or cineradiography, a rapid series of exposures is made.

16, which shows how σ/ρ varies with photon energy. Free electron: ƒ An electron which binding energy is much less than energy of incident photon. ƒ In diagnostic radiology range (10 – 150 keV): S In high atomic no. elements → outer shell electrons are free. S In low atomic no. elements (as in soft tissue) → all electrons are free. 6 PHOTOELECTRIC ABSORPTION When a photon (a) 'collides' with an electron (b) in the K-shell of an atom & if its energy > the binding energy of the shell → it can eject the electron b from the atom.

MCQ: Radiographic image contrast is less with Compton reaction than with PEE. 35 Characteristic radiation in photoelectric interactions: Ì Ì Same principle as characteristic radiation production either in the X-ray target or in photoelectric effect, the only difference is the method used to eject the inner shell electron (high speed electron in the x-ray tube & x-ray photon in PEE) Characteristic radiation is usually referred to as 2ry radiation, to differentiate from Scatter radiation. EFFECTIVE ATOMIC NUMBER Effective atomic number = a (weighted) average of the atomic numbers of the constituent elements.

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