By Paul O'Connor, Toru Takatsuka, Geoffrey L. Woolery
content material: Philosophical assessment of checking out / Paul O'Connor, Geoffrey L. Woolery, and Toru Takatsuka --
merits, chances, and barriers of small-scale checking out of catalysts for fixed-bed tactics / S.T. Sie --
comparing pore constitution and morphology of hydrocarbon-conversion catalysts / R. Mann, okay. Khalaf, and A. Al-Lamy --
Deactivation of zeolite catalysts via coke / T. Masuda and okay. Hashimoto --
Modes of coking and deactivation of acid zeolite catalysts / M. Guisnet, P. Magnoux, and ok. Moljord --
Catalyst coking, activation, and deactivation / P.A. Sermon, M.S.W. Vong, and M. Matheson --
NMR strategies for learning the coking of zeolite-based catalysts / J.L. Bonardet, M.C. Barrage, and J. Fraissard --
Characterization of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst coke via ¹³C NMR and mass spectrometry / B.J. McGhee, J.M. Andresen, C.E. Snape, R. Hughes, C.L. Koon, and G. Hutchings --
Catalyst decay as an aspect response of the chain procedures of catalytic cracking / B.W. Wojciechowski and N.M. Rice --
Catalyst deactivation in fluid catalytic cracking : a overview of mechanisms and trying out equipment / Paul O'Connor, E. Brevoord, A.C. Pouwels, and H.N.J. Wijngaards --
Sodium deactivation of fluid catalytic cracking catalyst / Xinjin Zhao and Wu-Cheng Cheng --
Contaminant-metal deactivation and metal-dehydrogenation results in the course of cyclic propylene steaming of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts / Lori T. Boock, Thomas F. Petti, and John A. Rudesill --
Catalyst deactivation in adiabatic prereforming : experimental equipment and types for prediction of functionality / Thomas S. Christensen and Jens Rostrup-Nielsen --
Mechanism of deactivation in reforming catalysts at commence of run / Yaofang Liu, Guoqing Pan, and Jiujin Yang --
Catalyst deactivation in advertisement residue hydrodesulfurization / Hiroki Koyama, Eiichi Nagai, and Hideaki Kumagai --
Deactivation of sunshine naphtha aromatization catalyst / S. Fukase, N. Igarashi, ok. Aimoto, and ok. Kato --
impression of method stipulations and catalyst houses on catalyst deactivation in residue hydroprocessing / M. Absi-Halabi and A. Stanislaus --
Catalyst deactivation in hydrodemetallization / J.P. Janssens, A.D. van Langeveld, S.T. Sie, and J.A. Moulijn --
task and coking cost of catalysts deactivated through fast-coking species extra to the feed / Dady B. Dadyburjor, Zhenyu Liu, Shigeki Matoba, Shinichi Osanai, and Tetsuya Shirooka --
Pilot reactor trying out of the impact of naphtha boiling element in catalytic reforming / ok. Moljord, ok. Grande, I. Tanem, and A. Holmen --
Vanadium mobility in fluid catalytic cracking / Richard F. Wormsbecher, Wu-Cheng Cheng, Gwan Kim, and Robert H. Harding --
enhanced tools for checking out and assessing deactivation from vanadium interplay with fluid catalytic cracking catalyst / Bruce Lerner and Michel Deeba --
Riser simulator: checking out of adsorption results / Jacek Pruski, Ahmet Pekediz, and Hugo de Lasa --
improvement of a bench-scale fluid catalytic cracking microriser / M.P. Helmsing, M. Makkee, and J.A. Moulijn --
evaluate of coke selectivity of fluid catalytic cracking catalysts / E. Brevoord, A.C. Pouwels, F.P.P. Olthof, H.N.J. Wijngaards, and Paul O'Connor --
Correlation of catalyst functionality among laboratory assessments and advertisement devices for hydrotreating residual oil / Yoshimitsu Miyauchi, Takeshi Hashiguchi, Naoto Kimbara, and Katsuhisa Fujita --
lifestyles trying out of sunshine hydrocarbon aromatization catalysts / okay. Hirabayashi, F. Igarashi, and T. Kondou --
functionality trying out of hydroconversion catalysts / W.H.J. Stork --
improvement of a try approach to guage fluid catalytic cracking catalyst regenerability / V.L.N. Murthy, S. Debnath, M. Rama Rao, S.K. Ray, A.K. Das, and S. Ghosh --
A catalyst deactivation version for residual oil hydrodesulfurization and alertness to deep hydrodesulfurization of diesel gas / Toru Takatsuka, Yukitaka Wada, and Shin-ichi Inoue --
Modeling catalytic deactivation of benzene hydrogenation / Paul F. Meier and Marvin M. Johnson.
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Additional resources for Deactivation and Testing of Hydrocarbon-Processing Catalysts
In the latter case, a pilot plant will be a scaled-down version of an actual complex industrial plant, rather than just a reactor unit as required in catalyst performance testing or kinetic process studies. Notation Bo d dp D Dax Dm Drad E g GHSV k L LHSV n Ne p Pe r R Re RTD sr s p T u v v w WHSV WABT X Bodenstein number diameter of cylindrical particle particle diameter (equivalent sphere diameter) bed diameter effective diffusivity in axial direction molecular diffusivity effective diffusivity in radial direction activation energy gravity constant gas hourly space velocity reaction rate constant length of reactor or cylindrical particle liquid hourly space velocity reaction order equivalent number of ideal mixers pressure Peclet number radial coordinate bed radius or gas constant Reynolds number residence time distribution sulfur content in feed sulfur content in product temperature superficial fluid velocity average fluid velocity in bed catalyst volume wetting number weight hourly space velocity weighted average bed temperature axial coordinate converswn X Greek letters �Tad adiabatic temperature rise � (ad) deviation from true adiabacicity related to radial heat flow � (ad,app) deviation from true adiabacicity related to axial heat conduction E voidage 2.
3 __.. 1 / W H SV Fig. 20. Comparison of bench-scale and microflow reactors for hydrodesulfurization of a heavy gasoil over diluted catalyst beds. (A and B are Co/Mo/Alurnina catalysts shaped as cylindrical extrudates of 1 . 5 mm diameter). Table IX. 4 Maximum activity 1 6. 5%) Catalyst: Co/Mo/Alumina, 1 . 5 mm diam. cylindrical extrudates. 2. SIE Small-Scale Testing of Catalysts for Fixed-Bed Processes 37 Table X. 2 mm diam. Trilobe extrudates, Lid = 3 . Diluent i n microflow test: Silicon carbide, d = 0 .
C 0. 24 0. 22 Quarter-Pellets 0. ::! 0. 1 8 0. 16 UJ ::c ::::> _J 0 > u ...... IL. u UJ a. (/) 0. 1 4 0. 12 0. 1 0 0. 08 0. 06 0. 04 0. 02 0. 00 1 X101 2 3 4 5 6 7 891 X I 01 2 3 4 5 6 7891 PRESSURE (KG/CH••2l Figure 2. X I II" 2 3 4 Mercury porosimeter results 5 6 7891 X101 2 3 4 3. MANN ET AL. Morphology of Hydrocarbon-Conversion Catalysts • • D Figure 3. • • Figure 4. Mercury Intra- Particle Volume I nter- Particle Vol u m e Mercury penetration into micro-porous particles Mercu ry Intra- Particle Volume • D I ntra- Pel let Volume I nter- Pel let Volume Mercury penetration into an assembly of pellets 45 46 DEACTIVATION AND TESTING OF HYDROCARBON-PROCESSING CATALYSTS p .