Biological Interactions with Surface Charge in Biomaterials by Tofail Syed;Paul O'Brien;Harold Craighead;Harry Kroto;Halina

By Tofail Syed;Paul O'Brien;Harold Craighead;Harry Kroto;Halina Podbielska

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When D1 is the amplitude of the sinusoidal vibrations and D0 is initial distance between the tested surface and the probe, the capacitance, C, of such a system can be written as eqn (5): C¼ ee0 A D0 þ D1 sinðotÞ ð5Þ and the probe current can be expressed as eqn (6): I ¼U   dC d ee0 A D1 o cosðotÞ ¼ ÀUee0 A ¼U dt dt D0 þ D1 sinðotÞ ½D0 þ D1 sinðotފ2 ð6Þ To nullify this current, the voltage between the tested surface and the probe has to be brought to zero. In KPFM techniques, this method is often modified and the alternating voltage is applied to the probe instead of mechanical oscillations.

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