By D. J. Bauer M.A., Ph.D., M.B., B.Chir. M.R.C.P., F.R.C.Path. (auth.)
In comparability with antibacterial chemotherapy the scientific use of particular antiviral medicines is a reasonably fresh improvement. via the Fifties a host were stumbled on, yet their scientific program was once not on time till 1962, while methisazone was once used for the remedy of infective problems of smallpox vaccination and idoxuridine within the therapy of herpetic keratitis. looking back the explanations for this slowness in improvement is now obtrusive. It used to be due largely to the existing view held on the time that virus infections may well by no means be taken care of with particular brokers, because the multiplica tion of virus is so heavily built-in with the metabolic techniques of the host phone that specificity of motion appeared most unlikely of feat. by contrast, micro organism have been self sustaining entities with metabolic platforms differing greatly from these of the mammalian host, which afforded issues of assault through particular brokers which had no motion upon mammalian platforms. even supposing the mode of motion of the sulphonamides and penicillin used to be now not recognized for a while, they afforded excellent examples of the good fortune of this mode of attack.
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Extra info for The Specific Treatment of Virus Diseases
In 5% glucose or 0·45% sodium chloride the maximum solubility at room temperature is 8 mg/ml, and solutions are usually prepared at 5 mg/ml to avoid crystallization on storage. 3 Clinical use of cytarabine Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy Keratitis Smallpox Pneumonia Zoster Generalized Varicella In immunosuppressed patients Cytomegalic inclusion disease Keratitis Cutaneous herpes Generalized Eczema herpeticum Buccal gingivostomatitis Encephalitis Condition Aqueous solution Aqueous solution Aqueous solution Aqueous solution Eye drops Aqueous solution Intravenous Intravenous Intravenous Topical Intravenous L J 5 % in Orabase Topical Intravenous } Intrathecal Intravenous Intravenous Intrathecal Aqueous solution Aqueous solution Intravenous Intravenous Aqueous solution Aqueous solution Eye drops Preparation Topical Route 1:1 w Ul ttl .....
Cytarabine competitively inhibits deoxycytidine kinase, thus reducing the supply of deoxycytidine mono phosphate to nucleoside diphosphokinase. There is thus less deoxycytidine triphosphate available for incorporation into DNA, and this final stage is further reduced by inhibition of DNA polymerase. The involvement of cytarabine in RNA synthesis has not been studied in such detail. It does not inhibit RNA polymerase, but there is evidence to suggest that it is incorporated, and one may well suppose that RNA containing cytarabine residues may be defective in function.
When human embryo kidney cells were grown for 96 hours in the presence ofidoxuridine and then washed, it was found that they were then able to support multiplication of the virus to a high titre. The compound thus converted the cells into a permissive state, again presumably by preventing the formation of a normally-occurring inhibitory substance. A similar effect may underly the induction of tumour viruses which can be brought about by idoxuridine. Cells of embryo mice of the high leukaemic strain AKR can be grown in culture as virus-negative cell lines.