The Crusades: Biographies (Crusades Reference Library) by Neil Schlager

By Neil Schlager

The Crusades covers every little thing from the 1st campaign (1095-99) in the course of the 9th campaign (1271-72).

The Crusades: Biographies explores many key figures, akin to Pope city II, Saladin, Pope blameless III, Peter the Hermit, Richard I of britain, Frederick I of Germany, Francis of Assisi, Stephen of Cloyes and others.

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The earliest written or sketched information appeared on cave walls tens of thousands of years ago. From there people progressed to stone and clay tablets, but these materials were not very portable and also required great effort to create. Many other materials were tried over the centuries, including bark, silk, metal, and even leaves. The ancient Egyptians developed papyrus from a plant found growing near the Nile River. They created what looked like sheets of paper by peeling and slicing the plant into strips and then layering and pounding them together.

However, instead of taking the captive to Baghdad to show him off, Alp Arslan decided to use the emperor to regain lost land, form an alliance with Byzantium, and attain a longlasting truce with the Byzantine Empire. Once the ransom for Romanus was paid and he had been returned to Constantinople, the emperor found himself ousted, or removed, from the throne by a new monarch, who imprisoned and blinded him. When Romanus died in prison, the treaty with the Seljuks ended with his death. However, the victory at Manzikert still opened all of Byzantium to Turkish invasions by roving bands, who nibbled away at much of Asia Minor over the next decade.

Soon the caliph had a commission for the Spanish scholar. He complained that the translated works of the famous Greek philosopher Aristotle were too difficult and poorly done to understand. Ibn Tufayl decided not to attempt to explain these works, since such a project might take many years. Averroës agreed to take on the project, and it became his main scholarly occupation for the rest of his life. Commentaries on Aristotle In 1169 Averroës was appointed chief judge in Seville, Spain, and thus returned to the region of his birth.

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