By Neil Schlager
The Crusades covers every little thing from the 1st campaign (1095-99) throughout the 9th campaign (1271-72).
The Crusades: Almanac discusses a variety of subject matters, together with the conquering of Jerusalem through the caliph Umar, pilgrimages to the Holy Land, the traditions of chivalry, Shiites and Sunnis, territorial enlargement and colonization as motivations for the crusades, Knights Hospitalers and Knights Templars and extra.
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Additional resources for The Crusades: Almanac (Crusades Reference Library)
Pilgrims would simply approach one of the tables and buy their tickets. Payment had to be in Venetian gold ducats, and money changers were everywhere, ready to exchange into the local currency whatever money the pilgrims had brought—for a fee, of course. Passage on a ship cost about sixty ducats, though poorer pilgrims were often able to book the worst shipboard accommodations for thirty ducats. They would then board a ship, which would sail down the Adriatic Sea to the eastern Mediterranean and onward to one of the port cities on the Levant, the European term for the countries that bordered the eastern Mediterranean.
The History of Islam. New York: Dorset Press, 1987. Peters, F. E. Jerusalem: The Holy City in the Eyes of Chroniclers, Visitors, Pilgrims, and Prophets from the Days of Abraham to the Beginnings of Modern Times. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1985. Periodicals Hamilton, Bernard. ” Catholic Historical Review 80 (October 1994): 695–713. ” The Jerusalem Mosaic. htm (accessed on August 11, 2004). 32 The Crusades: Almanac Pilgrimages to the Holy Land and Communities in the Holy Land 3 T o a Christian, Jerusalem during the Middle Ages (500– 1500) was both a place on a map and an idea.
This process often leads to different spellings, especially because there may be different pronunciations of the words. name is spelled Khwarizmians or even Khoreszmians. The Muslim caliph, or ruler, who seized Jerusalem in the seventh century was Umar, but many texts spell the name Omar. Even western names written in the Roman alphabet pose a problem. The name of one Crusader castle referred to in the literature of the time is spelled thirteen different ways. Internet researchers need to take alternative spellings into account when entering key words.