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Extra resources for Pharmaceutical Dosage Forms: Disperse Systems
To overcome the undesirable exposure of drug to irradiation, poloxamer surfactants have been developed that gel by interfacial polymerization . Interaction of polymer and surfactant at the interfacial boundary to create a barrier to coalescence is yet another approach [144,145]. Nonionic surfactants and macromolecules such as bovine serum albumin have been used to form a complex interfacial membrane that prolonged the release of drug from the internal aqueous phase of W/O/W droplets. With poloxamer nonionics, the droplets were found to be encapsulated in aqueous surfactant membranes similar to “polyaphrons” [121,146].
VI. Vesicles. Among the organized surfactant structuresmonolayers, micelles, microemulsions, bilayers, and vesiclesthe latter have attracted great interest as potential drug carriers of greater specificity and duration of action. The major forces governing the self-assembly of these aggregates derive from the hydrophobic interactions between the hydrocarbon tails, which cause the molecules to associate, and the hydrophilic nature of the head groups, which dictates that they remain in contact with water.
178] calculated an entropy of mixing based on the number of ways in which the interface can be partitioned in space rather than by the ways in which the droplets can be distributed. 15) the water phase is discontinuous (the same for the oil phase at low oil content). But, over a large concentration range, both oil and water phases are continuous. A progressive change from the droplet to the random model can be envisaged as the dispersed phase concentration, and attractive interactions between droplets increase.