Petroleum Refinery Process Economics by Robert E. Maples

By Robert E. Maples

Vital textual content for approach engineers, refinery schedulers, planners, and executives, this publication offers an equipped examine the yield info and houses of goods from refinery techniques and the way to exploit this data in acting strategy economics reviews of assorted varieties. extra, working and capital expenses are mentioned for fiscal overview of either unmarried procedures and entire refineries. Yield correlations are offered for all the vital, commercially-established petroleum refinery methods. each one correlation is observed by means of working specifications plus the capital price of a standard unit.
entrance subject
• checklist of Figures
• record of Tables
• checklist of Acronyms
• Preface
• desk of Contents
•Section A: advent 1. creation
2. Correlation technique
three. Crude Oils, Hydrocarbons, and Refinery items
four. Refinery Processing - an outline
five. power assets and Transportation Fuels
6. the surroundings and the Refiner
7. Crude Oil Processing
•Section B: Residual Oil Processing eight. Solvent Deasphalting
nine. Visbreaking and Aquaconversion
10. behind schedule Coking
eleven. Fluid Coking/Flexicoking
•Section C: Heavy Distillate Processing 12. Fluid Catalytic Cracking
thirteen. Heavy Oil Cracker
14. Hydrocracking
15. Hydrotreating
•Section D: mild Distillate Processing sixteen. Naphtha Desulfurization
17. Catalytic Reforming
•Section E: mild Hydrocarbon Processing 18. Isomerization
19. Alkylation
20. Catalytic Polymerization
21. Catalytic Dehydrogenation
•Section F: Oxygenates 22. Oxygenates
•Section G: Treating and different Auxiliary approaches 23. Aromatics Extraction
24. Hydrogen Manufacture
25. bitter Water Stripping
26. Sweetening
27. Acid fuel removing
28. Sulfur restoration
29. Tail gasoline Cleanup
• 30. Waste therapy and Waste Disposal
•Section H: mixing 31. mixing
•Section I: method Economics 32. Economics
• Appendix
• word list

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Dyes are used to distinguish between various grades and brands of gasoline. Originally they were added primarily to warn of the presence of lead alkyl compounds. a. antiknock additives) are materials added to a gasoline to enhance its octane number to reduce knocking tendency. The mainstay here for many years has been the lead alkyls TEL and TML, but these are being phased out of use. Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) has been used as an antidetonant to a limited extent (particularly in Canada).

396. Calculating the efficiencies for a series of compression ratios and plotting the results yields the curve in Figure 5–6. The significant increase in theoretical efficiency possible by increasing compression ratio is readily apparent. Fig. 5–6 Otto Cycle Efficiency The amount of this thermal efficiency resulting in useful work is reduced by the energy rejected to cooling water, or air (25 to 30%), the energy rejected in the exhaust (25 to 30%), plus the energy lost due to radiation and friction, including wind resistance (10 to 20%).

With strict environmental regulations in effect and crude’s higher sulfur content, products from crude distillation today require further (sometimes multi-step) processing to produce acceptable finished products. 29 PETROLEUM REFINERY P ROCESS ECONOMICS Refinery Products Of the multitude of products produced by the refiner today, only those listed below are considered in this work. They are listed in order of increasing boiling temperatures, since distillation is the primary means employed for separating refinery products.

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