By Xian Ming Zeng
Interactions among drug particulates are the most important in deciding on drug dispersion and deaggregation, and eventually supply potency. This e-book combines ideas tested in floor and colloidal chemistry with pharmaceutical powder know-how. It discusses the various elements affecting particulate interactions, and particle-fluid interplay within the respiration tract. The booklet then is going directly to severely overview many of the stories conducted in dry powder formula improvement, and at last, it proposes attainable innovations in enhancing DPI potency. nearly all of those rules are appropriate to different pharmaceutical sturdy dosage kinds (e.g. capsules and capsules).
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Additional resources for Particulate Interactions in Dry Powder Formulations for Inhalation
Although the interparticulate forces can be qualitatively estimated using a mathematical model, it is practically impossible to predict the actual force of particulate interaction on a quantitative basis since many factors are involved in this process. Thus, great caution must be exercised when attempting to extrapolate ﬁndings derived from hypothetical models to real systems encountered in pharmaceutical and other processes. G. (1984) Electrostatic phenomena during powder handling. Powder Technol.
1986) since the drugs and excipients will exist in this form at the beginning, throughout and, often, at the end of the manufacturing process. Not surprisingly, the physicochemical properties of powders have attracted considerable attention but this usually addressed a collection of discrete particles with dimensions less than 100 m. Pharmaceutical powders are composed of either ﬁne drug particles (those Ͻ200 m) or mixtures of drug particles together with excipient(s). Due to the intrinsic nature of small particles, interparticulate forces within a pharmaceutical powder are often one of the primary determinants of its behaviour, inﬂuencing such properties as ﬂow, mixing and agglomeration.
Then, a beam of small thickness and width in comparison with its length is subjected to transverse loads and its central deﬂection caused by bending is measured. Young’s modulus for a speciﬁc porosity can be calculated from the applied load and the deﬂection of the mid-point of the beam. If Young’s modulus is plotted against the porosity then the true modulus of the material can be obtained by extrapolation to zero porosity. g. g. 1). For example, tabletting excipients can be placed in the following increasing order of rigidity: starch Ͻ microcrystalline celluloses Ͻ sugars Ͻ inorganic ﬁllers.