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Extra resources for Minding the body : interacting socially through embodied action
However, this behavior does not end even when the egg is taken away, since the goose will actually complete the behavior as such, with or without the egg (cf. Tinbergen, 1951). Moreover, Tinbergen (1958) discovered that gull chicks would rather peck at a long thin striped red stick than on a realistic model of a parent gull, since the red striped stick in fact functions as a ‘better’ releaser of begging behavior when the chick is quite young. Lorenz and Tinbergen called this instinctive response fixed action pattern (FAP), and supposed that the fixed action pattern was the response which plays itself out to completion, once activated by a simple sensory cue.
A minor elevation of the eye-brows, holding the breath for a second or straightening one’s posture. These visual hints cued ‘Clever Hans’, since the questioner unconsciously altered body and/or head posture(s) when the horse reached the correct number of hoof taps, as a kind of involuntary relaxation of the “pressure” of the situation. As a result, ‘Clever Hans’ could not present the right answer when the questioner himself did not know the correct answer, since the horse was then not able to notice the slight change in body posture when the right answer was at hand.
G. Alcock, 1999; Gardner, 1987; Sparks, 1982; Walther, 1999). Lorenz, for instance, particularly emphasized the importance of sensitive observations of wild and ‘domesticated’ wild animals that he had raised in his home. Tinbergen and von Fritsch conducted simple, though very significant experiments, in the natural field as well as on captive animals in ‘natural’ conditions (Bekoff, 2002; Bekoff, Allen & Burghardt, 2002). Another influential person was Jakob von Uexküll (1864-1944) who had a tremendous impact on ethology in general, and Lorenz’s work in particular (Walther, 1999; Ziemke, 2000, 2001a).