Introduction to Food Process Engineering by P. G. Smith

By P. G. Smith

Introduction to foodstuff method Engineering treats the foundations of processing in a scientifically rigorous but concise demeanour, and will be used as a lead in to extra really expert texts for greater learn. it really is both suitable to these within the nutrients who want a higher knowing of the rules of the nutrients procedures with which they paintings. Written from a quantitative and mathematical point of view, this textbook isn't easily a descriptive therapy of meals processing. the purpose is to offer readers the boldness to take advantage of mathematical and quantitative analyses of meals strategies. To additional this target, each one bankruptcy incorporates a huge variety of labored examples and difficulties, with strategies supplied behind the e-book. the math essential to learn this publication is restricted to basic differential and critical calculus and the easiest form of differential equation. This moment version contains extra chapters, Mass move Operations and minimum Processing expertise, in addition to various new and revised figures.

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1 Kinetic Theory of Gases The kinetic theory of gases assumes that a gas is composed of molecules with each molecule behaving as if it were a separate particle (rather like a billiard ball) and free to move in space according to Newton’s laws. Each gas ‘particle’ is constantly in motion and has an inherent kinetic energy. When heat is added to a gas the result is that the kinetic energy of the gas increases and it is this average kinetic energy which defines the temperature of the gas. Thus an increase in gas temperature signifies an increase in average kinetic energy and an increase in the average particle velocity.

42) 36 3 Thermodynamics and Equilibrium Fig. 12 Pressure–volume diagram for a fluid: representation of reversible work which is equal to the shaded area under the curve in Fig. 12. The quantity which is represented by internal energy plus the work of expansion is called enthalpy h. It is defined by Eq. 43) which takes the general form of the first law as expressed in Eq. 37). Enthalpy may be thought of as ‘energy content’ and it is most important in food processes to be able to follow the changes in enthalpy of materials as heat is added or removed.

3 Heat, Work and Enthalpy A number of terms must now be defined before applying thermodynamic reasoning to the transfer of work and heat and arriving at a series of working relationships. Heat is a form of energy which is transferred from one body to a second body due to a temperature difference between them. Heat cannot be contained in a body or possessed by a body. The term sensible heat is used to describe heat which results in a temperature change within a substance, that is the addition or removal of sensible heat can be sensed because of the temperature change.

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