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Additional info for Image Processing, Analysis, and Machine Vision, 3rd Edition
Image function sampling poses two questions. First, the sampling period should be determined--this is the distance between two neighboring sampling points in the image. Second, the geometric arrangement of sampling points (sampling grid) should be set. 5 --the reader is strongly encouraged to understand at least the implications of this important result. It is worth glancing ahead to Figure 3 . 1 1 to see a clear illustration of this intuitive issue. For now, it is sufficient to appreciate that if quality comparable to an ordinary television image is required, sampling into a 512 x 512 grid is used (768 x 576 for PAL format and 640 x 480 for NTSC format using a rectangular capture window); this is the reason most image digitizers use this (or higher) resolution.
Recovering information lost by perspective projection is only one, mainly geometric, problem of computer vision--a second problem is understanding image brightness. The only information available in an intensity image is the brightness of the appropriate pixel (picture element, image element), which is dependent on a number of independent factors such as object surface reflectance properties (given by the surface material, microstructure, and marking) , illumination properties, and object surface orientation with respect to a viewer and light source.
Thus we sec a sequence of operations-image capture, early processing, segmentation, model fitting, motion prediction, qualitative/quantitative conclusion-that is characteristic of image understanding and computer vision problems. ) may be addressed by a number of algorithms which we shall cover in due course. IThe application was serious; there is a growing need in modern agriculture for automatic monitoring of animal health, for example to spot lameness. A limping cow is trivial for a human to identify, but it is very challenging to do this automatically [Magee, 20011.