By Andrew W. Woods
Concentrating on simplified types of actual stream approaches, this booklet develops a sequence of quantitative versions to explain the restoration of oil and fuel from hydrocarbon reservoirs (including fracking), the physics of geo-sequestration of CO2, geothermal strength construction, and the possibility of underground contaminant dispersal within the long term garage of nuclear waste. the writer ways those difficulties by means of constructing simplified mathematical versions and opting for the most important dimensionless variables that regulate the approaches. This research is then used to illustrate the demanding situations and constraints of modelling move in advanced and heterogeneous rocks, which frequently have doubtful move houses. Analytical suggestions for flows are supplied the place attainable, and analogue laboratory experiments also are awarded to aid illustrate and supply a distinct viewpoint at the flows. Incorporating end-of-chapter workouts, this can be a tremendous advent to the several controls on move in porous rocks for tutorial researchers, power execs and graduate scholars.
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Extra resources for Flow in Porous Rocks: Energy and Environmental Applications
This leads to the interesting question of how to maximize the flux of original formation fluid at the production well through injection of a second fluid. The case of flow in parallel leads to a greater flux at early times; this is because the flow speed in the high permeability layer is larger than that in the low permeability layer, and so this layer is swept of original fluid very rapidly. 5a). The value of the production typically decays exponentially with time according to models of economics in which value is discounted with time.
10. 55 of the maximum. Such reductions in the effective permeability, resulting from the regions where there is a thicker zone of low permeability rock, can lead to reduced flow rates and production as compared to the parallel-sided two-layer model. In Chapter 10, we return to wavy horizons in the context of buoyancy-driven flow, and explore how they can lead to trapping of gas or CO2 . 6 Seal layers In the examples described above concerning layered rocks, we have assumed the layers are in good pressure communication, and then illustrated the associated flow patterns.
This illustrates the impact of a seal layer in reducing the flow between a source and a sink located on either side of the seal, in an otherwise uniform permeable rock. 4 Accounting for uncertainty As mentioned in Chapter 2, it is difficult to describe the full detail of the subsurface rocks, especially in terms of the layer thicknesses, cross-bedding, seal layers, and the presence and permeability of faults and fractures, yet such details can be key for modelling the effective flow properties, as illustrated with the simplified models of Chapter 3.