By Gaston R. Vantrappen M.D., Agg. H.O., Jan J. Hellemans M.D., Agg. H.O. (auth.)
This ebook goals to be a synthesis of our present wisdom concerning the common and pathological esophagus. even though a few first-class monographs on restricted features of esophageal pathology can be found, a contemporary guide treating the full of esophageal body structure and pathology is missing. We tried to give the accrued fabric in the sort of means that even the neophyte within the box wouldn't wander off within the wealth of information. hence now we have incorporated a few illustrations resembling classical radiological and endoscopic photographs, manometric tracings and simple graphs, which could appear superfluous for experts yet could be useful to the reader who desires to be initiated within the topic. even as we attempted to be particularly entire with a view to make to be had to the esophageal professional a publication of references, to which he can effectively flip whilst confronted with infrequent illnesses or strange physiological or pathophysiological pheno mena. in an effort to in attaining either goals the authors usually provide their very own perspective whilst confronted with controversal subject matters, whereas classical in addition to newer beneficial properties and ideas are pointed out and diverging reviews discussed.
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Extra info for Diseases of the Esophagus
The posterior mediastinal lymph nodes form a chain located against the dorsal side of the esophagus and in front of the aorta; they drain chiefly into the tracheal and tracheobronchial nodes. The diaphragmatic nodes, located just above the diaphragm at the dorsal aspect of both esophagus and aorta, drain the most distal part of the gullet. In 25 % of all individuals, one or two lymph nodes are found ventrally to the esophagus in the phrenopericardial angle, and retrocardially; but these drain cranially, into the tracheal and tracheobronchial nodes.
JAOOBSON, H. , OZTURK, C. : The lower esophageal vestibular complex. An anatomic-roentgen study. Amer. J. Roentgenol. 84, 1045-1055 (1960). Histology and Electron Microscopy v. J. DESMET and G. N. , 1968). Its wall is composed of the four typical layers which characterize the tubular digestive system: the mucous membrane (tunica mucosa), the submucosa (tunica submucosa), the muscularis externa (tunica muscularis), and adventitia (tunica adventitia). 1. Mucous Membrane (Tunica Mucosa) In cross-section the lumen of the empty esophagus has a collapsed stellate appearance, brought about by the presence of seven to ten longitudinal folds of the mucous membrane.
1968). The upper 2 to 6 cm contain only striated muscle. From there on, smooth muscle fibers gradually become more abundant, so that at a distance of 4 to 8 cm from the superior end the smooth musculature constitutes 50% of the esophageal tunica muscularis. The junction of striated and smooth muscle in the inner "circular" layer is located at a higher level than in the outer" longitudinal" layer. Most muscle fibers of the longitudinal layer originate from a strong tendon in the center of the dorsal upper edge of the cricoid.