A Broadcast Engineering Tutorial for Non-Engineers, Third by Graham A. Jones

By Graham A. Jones

Very important Updates! This 3rd version has been reorganized and up to date all through. It encompasses new criteria and identifies and explains rising electronic applied sciences presently revolutionizing the undefined. Additions comprise: ."Broadcast fundamentals" - first ideas in case you particularly are ranging from scratch .ATSC PSIP (Program and procedure info Protocol) and knowledge Broadcasting .More info on ATSC electronic tv criteria and implementation .Current television studio operations - HD and SD platforms, video servers, non-linear modifying, digital information rooms, closed captioning, and compressed bitstreams .Station and community preparations, centralcasting, and multicasting .IBOC electronic HD radio and strategies for implementation .Current radio studio operations - electronic audio workstations, software automation, and voice monitoring .and even more! * study from specialist Graham Jones of the nationwide organization of Broadcasters--the such a lot depended on identify in broadcast * Covers tv and radio, analog and electronic * full of jargon-busters

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4. Example of Two Waves in Quadrature The figure shows that when one carrier is at a positive or negative maximum level, the other one is always at zero (half-way between maximum and minimum), and there is always a fixed 90-degree phase offset between the two signals. This fact allows the two carriers to both be modulated with different information, and yet be separately demodulated at the receiver. Having the same frequency, they occupy the same portion of the radio spectrum. Digital Modulation Systems Digital broadcasting generally uses more sophisticated modulation systems, including variants of amplitude and frequency modulation, and ones that vary the phase of the wave.

Those used for broadcasting in the United States range from about 500 kHz to 12 GHz. As mentioned for sound, a hertz (Hz) is one cycle of the wave per second. The units used for RF frequencies are as follows: kHz kilo (thousand) hertz MHz mega (million) hertz GHz giga (billion) hertz Whatever their frequency, all electromagnetic waves travel through a vacuum at the speed of light (about 186,000 miles per second, or 300 million meters per second). This speed is almost the same in air, but it decreases in other materials.

A CD player reads information by shining a light (actually a laser) onto the disk and analyzing the 4 R A D I O F R E Q U E N C Y WAV E S 29 ation in some types of radio and television transmission without using significant extra bandwidth. In particular, it is used to carry supplementary services in AM radio and, with a subcarrier, to carry the chrominance information in NTSC television. 4. Phase in this regard means the exact timing of arrival of the wave, and onequarter of a wavelength, is 90 degrees.

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