By Heinz Mehlhorn (auth.), Sven Klimpel, Heinz Mehlhorn (eds.)
This e-book gathers contributions through sixteen overseas authors at the phenomenon “bats,” laying off a few gentle on their morphology, the feeding behaviors (insects, end result, blood) of other teams, their strength and proven transmissions of brokers of ailments, their endo- and ectoparasites, in addition to numerous myths surrounding their way of life (e.g. vampirism, chupacabras, batman etc.).
Bats were identified in numerous cultures for a number of thousand centuries, notwithstanding their nocturnal actions have made them mysterious and resulted in many legends and myths, whereas confirmed proof remained scarce. Even this present day, our wisdom of bats is still restricted in comparison to different teams within the animal state. additionally, their well-known skill to prevent collisions with stumbling blocks in the course of their nightly flights with assistance from a worldly and exact method utilizing ultrasound waves (which are transmitted and bought) is as poorly studied as birds discovering their means from continent to continent. lately, the place globalization transports hundreds of thousands of individuals and items from one finish of the earth to the opposite, there are elevated hazards posed by way of brokers of ailments, due to which bats have bought expanding recognition as strength vectors. those suppositions are in response to their confirmed transmission of viruses corresponding to rabies.
In committed chapters, the publication addresses the subsequent topics:
• the area of bats
• The fantastic morphology of bats
• Bats as power reservoir hosts for vector-borne diseases
• Bat endoparasites
• Macroparasites – ectoparasites
• Glimpses into how bats fly
• Blood-licking bats
• Vampirism in drugs and culture
• Chupacabras and “goat milkers”
• Myths on candiru
As such, this e-book offers a extensive diversity of knowledge for all non-experts drawn to organic subject matters, but in addition for individuals operating during this box, in addition to physicians and veterinarians who're faced with scientific situations, and for academics and scholars drawn to increasing their wisdom of biology and of previous and current cultures.
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Extra resources for Bats (Chiroptera) as Vectors of Diseases and Parasites: Facts and Myths
Meißner Hendra Virus Infection, a Queensland Health fact sheet. au, Version: 26, 27 Sept 2012 Hill JE, Smith JD (1984) Bats: a natural history. html Jones JK, Genoway HH (1970) Chiroptera systematics. In: Slaughter RH, Walton DW (eds) About bats: a chiropteran symposium. Southern Methodist University Press, Dallas, TX, pp 3–21 Lawlor TE (1979) Handbook of the orders and families of living mammals. , subsequent edition, 330 pp Lyman CP (1970) Thermoregulation and metabolism in bats, p. 301-330. In: Wimsatt WA (ed) Biology of bats.
Mosquitoes and exhibits two different transmission cycles. Aedes aegypti as well as Ae. albopictus are the main vectors in Asia and transmit the virus to humans directly in an urban transmission cycle. Virus isolation from non-human primates or vertebrates like bats in Africa suggests the occurrence of a sylvatic transmission cycle. The main vectors of CHIKV in Africa are Ae. furcifer-taylori, Ae. africanus, Ae. luteocephalus and Ae. aegypti (Higgs 2006; Krishna et al. 2006). In the last 3 Bats as Potential Reservoir Hosts for Vector-Borne Diseases 37 50 years, numerous outbreaks of CHIKV were reported (Schwartz and Albert 2010).
It was first recognized and isolated from Culex pipiens and Cx. univittatus in 1952 in Egypt (Jo¨st et al. 2010; Kurkela et al. 2008; Laine et al. 2004). The first record of Sindbis virus in European countries was in 1975 (Laine et al. 2004). g. g. g. China, Malaysia and Lebanon) and Australia (Lundstro¨m and Pfeffer 2010; Norder et al. 1996; Tesh 1982). Nucleotide sequencing of SINV strains isolated around the globe has shown that the majority of SINV strains are geographically distinct genotypes and that migrating birds may carry the virus over long distances (Modlmaier et al.