By Sonia Quaratino MD,PhD (auth.), Anthony P. Weetman MD,DSc (eds.)
Autoimmune illnesses in Endocrinology is a finished and novel textual content that examines key beneficial properties that predispose contributors to autoimmune ailments. The textual content starts with 3 introductory chapters which offer adequate details in order that a person, together with these with out a history in contemporary immunology, can be in a position to comprehend the advancements within the box. the following and biggest component to the e-book issues autoimmune thyroid sickness, and authors of those chapters take the reader throughout the uncomplicated epidemiology, genetic and environmental danger elements, immunopathogenesis, and the diagnostic and administration point of the affliction. the subsequent part discusses variety 1 diabetes mellitus. within the ultimate part, authors clarify different autoimmune endocrinopathies, together with Addison’s ailment, untimely ovarian failure, autoimmune hypophysitis, and autoimmune polyglandular syndrome kinds 1 and a couple of. entire and well timed, Autoimmune ailments in Endocrinology becomes an important reference for all endocrinologists and inner drugs practitioners operating during this field.
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Additional info for Autoimmune Diseases in Endocrinology
This can result in the development of a non-pathogenic phenotype, thus preventing autoimmune damage (16). Apoptosis is probably the most effective direct-acting mechanism to prevent autoimmunity from developing, as it involves deletion of the autoreactive T cell through interaction between Fas ligand and its receptor (16). However, in most cases, not all T cells are deleted but remain in the periphery in an anergic state, suggesting that apoptosis only occurs until the levels of autoreactive T cells are such that they can be controlled by the process of anergy (16).
C) CTLA-4 directly interacts with TCR- at the immunological synapse. (D) LYP might associate with PTK without the aid of adaptor molecules. (E) LYP bound to c-Cbl might target ZAP-70 through the SH2 domain on c-Cbl binding to the phosphorylated Tyr292 of the ZAP-70 molecule. (F) It is known that the SH2 domain of Csk can bind to PAG/Cbp molecules present in the lipid rafts of the cell membrane. If LYP and Csk were bound through the SH3 domain of Csk and the P1 domain of LYP, and Csk was bound to PAG/Cbp, this would bring LYP closer to Lck and Fyn and might enable dephosphorylation.
Ive SH2 F. T-Cell ZAP-70 B. SH3 E. C-CBL FYN LCK ZAP-70 LYP CSK SH3 Grb2 LYP FYN LCK LYP G. D. C-CBL LYP CSK LYP LYP LYP LYP Fig. 1. Potential mechanisms of action of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen (CTLA)-4 and lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (LYP). (A) CTLA-4 might successfully compete with CD28 for the CD80/86 ligands owing to its greater affinity for these molecules and thereby inhibit the costimulatory effect of CD28. (B) CTLA-4 might apply its inhibitory effect by acting on downstream signaling pathways at activation.