AQA AS Biology Student Unit Guide : Unit 1 Biology and by Martin Rowland, Steve Potter

By Martin Rowland, Steve Potter

Ideal for revision, those publications clarify the unit requisites, summarise the content material and comprise specimen questions with graded answers.
Martin Rowland has taught and tested A-level Biology for over 30 years and is at the moment a Chair of Examiners in Biology. he's co-author of the winning titles AQA Biology for AS and AQA Biology for A2, released by way of Hodder schooling.

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Sample text

Much of the evidence linking lifestyle conditions with disease stems from a correlation between an environmental factor and an increase in the occurrence of the disease. It does not provide direct evidence of cause and effect. Pulmonary tuberculosis — a contagious lung disease Pulmonary tuberculosis is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The bacterium is spread from person to person in droplets produced by sneezing and coughing. When these droplets are inhaled, the disease can progress in different ways, depending on the health of the individual.

From lungs Left pulmonary veins From lungs Left atrioventricular valve Left atrium From lungs Pulmonary valve Left pulmonary artery Right atrium Right ventricle Inferior vena cava From lower regions of body Left ventricle Aortic valve Septum To lower regions of body Figure 45 The internal structure of the heart The cardiac cycle The main events of the cardiac cycle are shown in Figure 46 and summarised in the table. 48 AQA AS Biology The structure and functioning of the heart (1) (2a) (3b) (2b) (3a) Figure 46 The events of the cardiac cycle are further described in the table below Stage Action of atria Result Action of ventricles (1) Atrial systole Walls contract Blood forced through valves into ventricles Walls relax Ventricles fill with blood (2) Ventricular Walls relax Blood neither enters systole nor leaves atria Walls contract Result (a) Initially no blood leaves, but pressure of blood in ventricles increases (b) Pressure of blood opens valves and blood is ejected into main arteries Walls relax (a) Blood neither (3) Ventricular Walls relax (a) Initially, blood diastole enters atria but enters nor leaves cannot pass into (b) B lood enters from ventricles as valves atria by ‘passive still closed ventricular filling’ — not due to atrial (b) A s more blood enters atria it contraction forces open valves and passes into ventricles Figure 47 shows the pressure changes of blood in the left side of the heart during one cardiac cycle.

Suggest — give a plausible biological explanation for something; this term is often you got your answer — always show your working! used when testing understanding of concepts in an unfamiliar context. ●● Use — you must find and include in your answer relevant information from the passage/diagram/graph/table or other form of data. 58 AQA AS Biology Heart disease and risk factors Question 1 Question 1 Heart disease and risk factors The diagram shows an external view of the heart.  (1 mark) (3 marks) (b) List three factors that increase the risk of developing coronary heart disease.

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