By Wai-Kai Chen

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**Extra resources for VLSI Technology (Principles and Applications in Engineering, 8)**

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1689-1698, Oct. 1997. 38. , “High-Performance Condenser Microphone with Fully Integrated CMOS Amplifier and DC-DC Voltage Converter,” IEEE J. Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 387-394, Dec. 1998. 39. Benard, W. , Heuer, A. , and Huff, M. , “Thin-Film Shape-Memory Alloy Actuated Micropumps,” IEEE J. Microelectromechanical Systems, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 245-251, Jun. 1998. 40. , “Quantum Computing,” Proc. of the National Academy of Sciences of the USA, vol. 95, no. 19, pp. 11032-11033, Sept.

On the other hand, system-on-chip technology has come into widespread use and, as a result, the LSI system requires several functions, such as logic, memory, and analog functions. Moreover, the LSI system sometimes needs an ultra-high-speed logic or an ultra-high-frequency analog function. In some cases, bipolar-CMOS (BiCMOS) technology is very useful. The first part of this chapter focuses on CMOS technology as the major LSI process technology, including embedded memory technology. The second part, describes BiCMOS technology; and finally, future process technology is introduced.

STI is a useful technique for downsizing not only the distance between active areas, but also the active region itself. However, a mechanical stress problem18 still remains, and several methods have been proposed19 to deal with it. Channel Doping In order to adjust the threshold voltage of MOSFETs, Vth, to that required by a circuit design, the channel doping process is usually required. The doping is carried out by ion implantation, usually through a thin dummy oxide film (10 to 30 nm) thermally grown on the substrate in order to protect the surface from contamination, as shown in Fig.