By Teyfik Demir, Cemile Basgül
This short publication systematically discusses all topics that have an effect on the pullout energy of pedicle screws. those screws are utilized in spinal surgical procedures to stabilize the backbone. The conserving energy of the pedicle screw is essential seeing that loosening of the pedicle screws may cause revision surgical procedures. as soon as the pedicle screw is pulled out, it's more durable to acquire similar stabilization for the fused vertebrae. The publication experiences the influence of screw designs, software concepts, cement augmentation, coating of the screw and try stipulations at the pullout power. The stories with finite aspect research have been additionally included.
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Additional resources for The Pullout Performance of Pedicle Screws
Non cemented expandable pedicle screw was compared with the cemented EPS on fresh human vertebrae from thoracolumbar spine. Bone mineral densities (BMD) of vertebrae were measured before testing and divided into two groups as osteoporotic and severely osteoporotic. As a result, the mean pullout strength of cemented EPS was two and half times higher than non-cemented EPS for severely osteoporotic bones. © The Author(s) 2015 T. Demir and C. ’s  study. Mean follow up period was chosen as 31 months.
Revision surgeries are challenging for surgeons because the loss of vertebral bone tissues from first insertion. Expandable and cannulated screws with cement augmentation could be solutions for the revision surgeries [10, 15, 18, 28, 33, 38]. For instance, Bostan et al.  compared expandable pedicle screws and pedicle screws with PMMA augmentation used for revision surgeries according to their pullout strength. Before and after revision pullout strengths were significantly different for both groups.
Wu Z, Gao M, Sang H, Ma Z, Cui G, Zhang Y, Lei W (2012) Surgical treatment of osteoporotic thoracolumbar compressive fractures with open vertebral cement augmentation of expandable pedicle screw fixation: a biomechanical study and a 2 year follow-up of 20 patients. Yaman O, Demir T, Arslan AK, ˙Iyidiker MA, Tolunay T, Camus¸cu N, Ulutas¸ M (2013) On the pullout strength comparison of various pedicle screw designs on synthetic foams and ovine vertebrae. Turkish Neurosurg. Yazu M, Kin A, Kosaka R, Kinoshita M, Abe M (2005) Efficacy of novel-concept pedicle screw fixation augmented with calcium phosphate cement in the osteoporotic spine.