By Theodor I. Oizerman
Soviet Marxist View
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Bertrand Russell used to be a British thinker, philosopher, mathematician, historian, author, social critic, and Nobel laureate. At quite a few issues in his lifestyles he thought of himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist. He was once born in Monmouthshire into essentially the most popular aristocratic households within the uk.
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Feuerbach, bei ng c onscious of the inevitability of such objections to m ateri a l ism, argued that study of n ature did not r ev ea l the n ecessity for th e e xistence of a s upernatural and was n ot ev id e nce, eve n i ndirec t ly, of its presence. Any supernaturalist e xp lan ation of the origin of th e p syc h i c was therefore q uite with o ut grounds. e. t h e s p ir i t from matter? [ h e w ro te ] . F irst of a l l, a n sw e r me this question: how can matter a r ise from spirit? I f you do n o t fi n d any, in t h e l east reasonable answer to t h at q u estion, you w i l l appr eh e n d that o n ly the contrary q uest i o n wil l lead you t o the goal (56: 1 7 9 ) .
Th us, o v e r m a n y centu r ies, p h i l osophy proc eeded, i n its theoret ic al self-determ ination, from one answer or oth e r to th e bas i c p h i l os o p h i c a l q u estion, w i thout being aw are of t h e fac t, someti m es even c o m i n g c l ose to a correct appreci ati on of i t. Th e e x pl a n ation of t h i s con trad iction is to be fo u n d , on th e one h and , i n n a t u r e , in the ge nes is of the basic p h i l osop h i c a l q u est i on , and o n t h e other hand i n t h e gen e r a l patterns of dev e l o p m e n t of t h eoretical k n o w l ed ge.
I ns of a r as ph i l osophy answered the q uestion of the relati on of t h o u g h t and bei n g, i t m ust be anth ropology, i . e . a d oc t r i n e of man, wh ose existence formed the actual r es o l u t i o n of th i s prob l em. 'The unity of th ought and being,' he w r ote, ' h a s sense and truth on l y when man c o m p oses the basis, f t h e subject of th is unity' ( 5 7 : 3 3 9 ) . Feue rbach thus reduced the b asic philosophical q u estion to th a t of man, and the re lation of t h e psych ic and physica l .