By Andrew S. Blum, Seward B. Rutkove
This might make a very good publication to study early in an electrodiagnostic residency. The chapters are short, and every bankruptcy has overview questions which are very precious. There are a number of error within the e-book although, and it kind of feels it was once now not completely edited. it isn't special adequate for an exceptional reference e-book in the course of perform in electrodiagnostic medication or for taking the ABEM examination.
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Extra resources for The Clinical Neurophysiology Primer
The Rm (membrane resistance) 02_Holmes 4/11/07 30 8:51 AM Page 30 Holmes and Khazipov Fig. 5. Current flow in a cortical neuron. See text. , 2000 with permission. is much larger than the extracellular fluid and, therefore, the corresponding voltage recorded by an intracellular electrode is larger, and opposite in polarity to an extracellular electrode positioned near the current sink. At the site of generation of an EPSP, the extracellular electrode detects current (positive ions) flowing away from the electrode into the cytoplasm as a negative voltage change, whereas the intracellular electrode detects a positive change in voltage caused by the influx of Na+ ions.
After the channel has returned to the resting state, it can again be reactivated by further depolarization. After an action potential, the Na+ channels are inactivated and the K+ channels are activated for a brief period of time. These transitory events make it more difficult for another action potential to be generated quickly. This refractory period limits the number of action 02_Holmes 4/11/07 8:51 AM Page 25 Basic Neurophysiology and the Cortical Basis of EEG 25 Fig. 3. Voltage-gated Na+ channel.
Biological membranes have both capacitive and resistive properties in parallel. 7. CELL-TO-CELL COMMUNICATION Through either neurotransmitter release at chemical synapses or current flow through gap junctions, ligand-gated or voltage-gated channels open and elicit postsynaptic potentials. Postsynaptic potentials alter the probability that an action potential will be produced in the postsynaptic cell. If there is depolarization of the membrane, the potential is termed an excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP), whereas, if there is hyperpolarization, the potential is called an inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP).