By M. Audin

Because the time of Lagrange and Euler, it's been renowned that an figuring out of algebraic curves can light up the image of inflexible our bodies supplied through classical mechanics. Many mathematicians have confirmed a contemporary view of the function performed by way of algebraic geometry in recent times. This ebook offers a few of these smooth ideas, which fall in the orbit of finite dimensional integrable platforms. the most physique of the textual content offers a wealthy collection of tools and concepts from algebraic geometry brought on through classical mechanics, whereas in appendices the writer describes common, summary idea. She provides the tools a topological program, for the 1st time in e-book shape, to the research of Liouville tori and their bifurcations.

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**Extra resources for Spinning Tops: A Course on Integrable Systems**

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48 2 Complex Manifolds Clearly φ is then a submersion, and each ﬁbre φ −1 (v) is a closed submanifold of U having the property that its tangent space at each point is equal to the ﬁbre of E at that point. The following theorem characterises the integrable distributions. 20 (Frobenius) A distribution E is integrable if and only if for all C 1 vector ﬁelds χ , ψ contained in E, the bracket [χ, ψ] is also contained in E. Proof Obviously, if E is integrable, then E is stable under the bracket. e. 19.

Another essential application is the principle of analytic continuation. 22 Let U be a connected open set of Cn , and f a holomorphic function on U . If f vanishes on an open set of U , then f is identically zero. e. locally equal to the sum of its Taylor series). We can thus apply the principle of analytic continuation to f . We recall that the latter is shown by noting that if f is analytic, the open set consisting of the points in whose neighbourhood f vanishes is equal to the closed set consisting of the points where f and all its derivatives vanish.

Let 1 ∈ R, 0 < 1 < |z 1 | be such that the closed disk of radius 1 and centre z 1 is contained in the disk {ζ | |ζ | < r1 }. Then the polydisk D 1 := {(ζ1 , . . , ζn )| |ζ1 − z 1| ≤ 1, |z i | ≤ ri , i ≥ 2} is contained in D − {ζ1 = 0}, so that Cauchy’s formula gives f (z) = 1 2iπ n f (ζ ) ∂D 1 dζ1 dζn ∧ ··· ∧ , ζ1 − z 1 ζn − z n where ∂ D 1 := {(ζ1 , . . , ζn )| |ζ1 − z 1| = 1, |ζi | = ri , i ≥ 2}. 2 Holomorphic functions of several variables 33 Consider, also, the product of circles ∂ D := {(ζ1 , .