Ryle by Oscar P. Wood, George Pitcher (eds.)

By Oscar P. Wood, George Pitcher (eds.)

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151). The e e A Collection of Critical Essays 25 grounds suggested in this particular passage are insufficient, namely, that certain adverbs which can in English be combined with the second class cannot be combined with the first; for it is always easy to find many exceptions to such generalisations about English idioms, even apart from the idioms of other equally adequate languages. g. as not "the dominant sense" of the word) precisely because Professor Ryle, in common with all other serious philosophers, here lays emphasis on a particular English idiom, only as a pointer to something other than itself, namely, to necessary logical distinctions.

Everyone seems to know the difference between making an effort to stifle (physical metaphor) an impulse and not making an effort, and we sometimes even attach meaning to degrees of effort. The dipsomaniac may be held to be blameless because helpless, where "helpless" means "no effort of will would make any difference," while the culpable drunkard is culpable because he fails to make the effort of will which would make the difference. It is therefore not true (p. 76) that the perplexity arises solely or even mainly' from asking whether volitions are the effects of 42 RYLE mechanical causes, although it is true that "He could have avoided it if he had tried" has often been confused by philosophers with "There is no causal explanation of his action," particularly, in the unfortunate formula "Ought implies can" (= "In his power") (see p.

Like a yawn, may be false and may be discovered to be a lie or mis-description by a careful collection of evidence. "); two people have made the same categorical statement; but my justification for making it, if any, is naturally very different from yours in these circumstances. g. "I am in pain"), only when these are expressed in the present tense. If you make the statement about your thoughts or sensations a year later, or an hour before, you, no less than I, might reasonably be required to produce evidence that these were or will be your thoughts and sensations; but wh~ ever makes it and whenever it is made, the possibility of 6 But would Professor Ryle as a literalist say that I only "strictly" hear the sounds of the words, and not what you say, your statements?

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