Routledge History of Philosophy, Volume VII: The Nineteenth by C. L. Ten

By C. L. Ten

The 19th Century presents a wide, scholarly advent to nineteenth-century philosophy. It additionally features a word list of philosophical phrases and a chronological desk of philosophical and cultural occasions.

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The electorate in each district is based, with few exceptions, on universal manhood suffrage (the world may not yet be ready to grant female suffrage though there is no logical reason to exclude women) and the electors both choose and may dismiss the representatives; mistrust is built into the system and the power of the people preserved. The legislature so elected by secret ballot is a single chamber, normally elected for one year, and comprising full-time and paid members. While this legislative branch is checked by the constitutive branch—through elections and dismissals—it in turn is responsible for the appointment and control over the administrative and judicial branches.

These ideas are copies of the sensations, and just as sensations are associated together, and more strongly the more frequent and vivid the connection, so ideas are associated in the same way. Knowledge is the result of frequency of conjunction; in some cases the frequency and strength is such that the ideas cannot be separated and this is what gives us our belief in the external world. All our mental faculties can be explained by this principle of association as can our behaviour in response to the two ultimate elements of painful and pleasurable sensations.

He has been seen as the proponent of a crude version of utilitarianism which the younger Mill sought to improve. Mill, as a defective philosophy. Mill’s debt to Bentham and to his father was generally concealed behind his somewhat severe criticisms of them. Mill’s Autobiography, though giving a distorted picture of his father’s character and influence, was regarded as the authorized version, and his critical essays on Bentham were thought to be no more than the master deserved. In consequence, the younger Mill’s attempt to defend a new version of utilitarianism, despite later criticisms of it, was thought at least to be an advance on the original.

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