Nez Percé Chief Joseph by William R. Sanford

By William R. Sanford

Chief Joseph led his humans, the Nez Perce, on one of many maximum trips in American historical past. within the early morning hours of June 17, 1877, hundreds and hundreds of guys, girls, and kids begun a three-month trip flight for freedom. alongside the best way, they'd conflict huge, immense odds, battling the U.S. military and touring 1700 miles over the tricky terrain of the Rockies and northerly plains.

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V. : Caxton Printers, 1940), p. 194. 3. Merrill D. Beal, “I Will Fight No More Forever” (Seattle: University of Washington, 1963), p. 203. Chapter 8 1. Russell Davis and Brent Ashabranner, Chief Joseph: War Chief of the Nez Percé (New York: McGraw Hill, 1962), p. 156. 2. Helen A. Howard, Saga of Chief Joseph (Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1978), p. 329. 3. , p. 330. Chapter 9 1. Helen A. Howard, Saga of Chief Joseph (Lincoln: University of Nebraska, 1978), p. 356. 2. Alvin M. , The Nez Percé Indians and the Opening of the Northwest (New Haven: Yale, 1965), p.

Joseph led his band sixteen miles to White Bird Creek. There they would be safe from surprise attack. Within days Nez Percé warriors killed fourteen more settlers. The army had to respond. General Oliver O. Howard led the army in the region. ”3 He sent Captain David Perry and ninety-two cavalrymen to attack the Nez Percé. ”4 Perry and his cavalrymen rode seventy miles in sixteen hours. Outside the camp a Nez Percé scout gave a warning coyote howl. The troops were coming. Joseph was ready. , June 17, 1877, light filled White Bird Canyon.

Only rarely did a tribe unite under one chief. Most tribes had many bands. Each band had its own leader. He could not sell the band’s land. No tribe thought it owned the land. The whites did not recognize this way of life. They often dealt with the leader of a band. They acted as though he were the chief of the whole tribe. They got him to sign a treaty. The treaty allowed the whites to gain the land they wanted. Image Credit: Library of Congress In 1864, the Northern Pacific Railroad received a charter to build on Nez Percé and Sioux lands that lay between Lake Superior and the Pacific Ocean.

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