Metaphysics, Mathematics, and Meaning: Philosophical Papers by Nathan Salmon

By Nathan Salmon

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Quine proclaims his endorsement of actualism, and assumes his readers agree. I believe that actualism is indeed the predominant view among philosophers of logic and philosophers of language. , ranging with respect to a time t over only those things that exist at t)—that among potential restrictions on our use of quantification, restriction to existing things is, so to speak, the ‘default value’—but that the domain of quantification may be, and very often is, adjusted either upward or downward in various ways, at the drop of a hat.

P. 252. See also Russell’s A Critical Exposition of the Philosophy of Leibniz, London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd, 1971, at pp. 174–175; and his Introduction to Mathematical Philosophy, London: George Allen and Unwin Ltd, 1953, at pp. ) The problem with the Ontological Argument—according to Kant, Frege, and Russell—is that by invoking the alleged concept of exidivinity in talking about an exidivine possible individual, it illegitimately treats existence as an admissible concept or property of individuals, on a par with such mundane concepts or properties as being green-eyed or being an island, thereby violating its proper status (as a second-level property or concept of first-level concepts or of propositional functions, or as a pre-requisite for having any properties at all, or as something of the sort).

It means that the propositional function is true in at least one instance. , R. C. Marsh, at p. ) . . As regards the actual things there are in the world, there is nothing at all you can say about them that in any way corresponds to this notion of existence. It is a sheer mistake to say that there is anything analogous to existence that you can say about them. . There is no sort of point in a predicate which could not conceivably be false. I mean, it is perfectly clear that, if there were such a thing as this existence of individuals that we talk of, it would be absolutely impossible for it not to apply, and that is the characteristic of a mistake.

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