Measurement and Characterization of Solar Cells and Modules by Keith Emery

By Keith Emery

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8 Typical light and dark current versus voltage curve of a commercial 50-W PV module of commercial equipment includes the 20 I –V points in the power quadrant closest to zero current. Another approach that works for all types of cells and modules is to include in the linear regression fit all points that satisfy the constraint that the absolute value of the voltage be less than 10% of the voltage at zero current and the additional constraint that the absolute value of the current be less than 20% of the current at zero voltage.

These reflection-related artifacts occur because the field of view of the reference cell and test device are not identical and can occur from reflections off simulator optics, reference cell packages, probe fixtures, the test station enclosure, and the region underneath the test device. Light reflecting from the region under the test device is especially important for bifacial cells and superstrate structures. With proprietary filters, commercial continuous Xe-arc lamp solar simulators have an excellent spectral match to the AM0 or terrestrial spectrum, and their point source (small arc volume) with integrating optics achieves a ±1 to ±3% variation in spatial uniformity.

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