# Linear Algebra: Examples and Applications by Alain M. Robert

By Alain M. Robert

This brief yet rigorous publication techniques the most principles of linear algebra via conscientiously chosen examples and suitable purposes. it really is meant for college kids with a number of pursuits in arithmetic, in addition to confirmed scientists looking to refresh their easy mathematical tradition. The ebook is usually a very good creation to sensible research and quantum conception because it discusses the final ideas of linear algebra with no finiteness assumptions.

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Extra resources for Linear Algebra: Examples and Applications

Example text

Z,a, = b, has at most one solution when the associated homogeneous system (HS) z1a1 + . . + z,a, = 0, only has the trivial solution 2 1 = 0, . . , z, = 0. This happens when no aj can be written as a linear combination of the other ai's. Indeed, if aj is a linear combination of the other ai's, say CHAPTER 2. VECTOR SPACES 40 then ( H S ) has a solution set with x j = 1, hence a nontrivial solution. It is natural to say that the m-tuples al, . . ,a, are linearly independent when none is a linear combination of the others.

P,-l, P, = Po such that Mi is the midpoint between Pi-1 and Pi (1 6 i n)? When it is possible, are there many possibilities? 9. Let < 10. Let P I , Pz,. . Is it always possible to find disjoint balls Bi with center Pi (1 i 6 n) such that Bi is tangent to both Bi-1 and where BO= B, and B,+1 = B1. The problem is to find the radii of these balls, as a function of the distance of consecutive Pi's. < 11. The equation of a plane in the usual space has the form ux + by + cz = d, where a , b, c, and d are parameters depending on the plane.

Ax,a, = axial+ a ~ a 2 (by the axioms of vector spaces, valid in E ) , and similarly, the sum of two linear combinations (xlal + . . + x,a,) + (ylal + . . + ynan) = (XI + y1)al + . . + (x, + yn)an, is again a linear combination. This subspace is called the linear span of the finite subset al, a2,. . ,a, (or of the family ( a i ) l G i G n ) , and denoted by V = L(al,a2,. . , a , ) = L(ai : 1 < a < n). It is the smallest subspace containing al, a 2 , . . ,a,, since any subspace W of El containing these elements, will also contain their linear combinations, hence contain L ( a l , a 2 , ..