By Frederick S. Hillier, Gerald J. Lieberman
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In an enzyme-catalysed reaction only one of the possible reactions will be catalysed by any given enzyme. 5 Cis/trans isomerism. • Binding of the substrate (S) to the enzyme, to form the enzyme–substrate complex: Enz + S Enz – S • Reaction of the enzyme-substrate complex to form the enzyme–product complex: Enz – S Enz – P • Breakdown of the enzyme–product complex, with release of the product (P): Enz – P Enz + P Hence, overall, the process can be written as: Enz + S Enz – S Enz–P Enz + P where Enz is the enzyme, S the substrate and P the product.
G. 2). g. 3). 1 Metal ions The electron acceptor or donor may be a metal ion that can have two different stable electron configurations. Commonly, iron (which can form Fe2+ or Fe3+ ions) and copper (which can form Cu+ or Cu2+ ions) are involved. In some enzymes, the metal ion is bound to the enzyme protein; in others, it is incorporated in an organic molecule, which in turn is attached to the enzyme. 2). Haem is also the prosthetic group of haemoglobin, the protein in red blood cells that binds and transports oxygen between the lungs and other tissues, and myoglobin in muscle.
The other, with its associated H+ ion, is incorporated into the ring as a second hydrogen at carbon-2. The second H+ ion removed from the substrate remains associated with the coenzyme. This means that the reaction can be shown as X-H2 + NAD+ X + NADH + H+ where X-H2 is the substrate and X is the product (the oxidized form of the substrate). Note that the reaction is reversible, and NADH can act as a reducing agent: X + NADH + H+ X-H2 + NAD+ where X is now the substrate and X-H2 is the product (the reduced form of the substrate).