By Jan Willem Polderman

This can be a e-book approximately modelling, research and keep an eye on of linear time- invariant platforms. The booklet makes use of what's referred to as the behavioral method in the direction of mathematical modelling. hence a approach is considered as a dynamical relation among take place and latent variables. The emphasis is on dynamical platforms which are represented by way of structures of linear consistent coefficients. within the first a part of the e-book the constitution of the set of trajectories that such dynamical structures generate is analyzed. stipulations are got for 2 platforms of differential equations to be similar within the feel that they outline a similar habit. it truly is extra proven that the trajectories of such linear differential platforms may be partitioned in unfastened inputs and certain outputs. furthermore the reminiscence constitution of the procedure is analyzed via nation area versions. the second one a part of the booklet is dedicated to a few vital approach homes, particularly controllability, observability, and balance. a necessary characteristic of utilizing the behavioral method is that it permits those and comparable innovations to be brought in a representation-free demeanour. within the 3rd half keep watch over difficulties are thought of, extra particularly stabilization and pole placement questions. this article is appropriate for complicated undergraduate or starting graduate scholars in arithmetic and engineering. It comprises various routines, together with simulation difficulties, and examples, significantly of mechanical structures and electric circuits.

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**Extra resources for Introduction to Mathematical Systems Theory: A Behavioral Approach**

**Example text**

The process of substituting the nonlinear model by the linear one is called linearization and is discussed in Chapter 4. Linear systems lend themselves much better to analysis and synthesis techniques than nonlinear systems do. Much more is known about them. As such, the theory of linear systems not only plays an exemplary role for the nonlinear case, but has also reached a much higher degree of perfection. The organization of this chapter is as follows. 2. The systems under consideration are 28 2.

2. 4 using latent variables and Kirchhoff’s laws. Eliminate the latent variables and obtain a behavioral equation for the manifest behavior. Call two resistive circuits equivalent if they have the same manifest behavior. 4 equivalent? 4. Resistive circuits. 2 Consider a linear mathematical model (Rq , B). Let p := q − dim B. Prove that B is the behavior of a linear model if and only if there exists a full row rank matrix R ∈ Rp×q such that B is described by the behavioral equations Rw = 0. 19) with ℓ ∈ Rq−p latent variables.

In economics, sales can be viewed as manifest, while consumer demand could be considered as a latent variable. We emphasize, however, that which variables are observed and measured through sensors, and which are not, is something that is really part of the instrumentation and the technological setup of a system. Particularly, in control applications 8 1. Dynamical Systems one should not be nonchalant about declaring certain variables measurable and observed. Therefore, we will not further encourage the point of view that identifies manifest with observable, and latent with unobservable.